The Application of Combined Phytoremediation Greywater Treatment in A Single House

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.58218

Ni Nyoman Nepi Marleni(1*), Ristie Ermawati(2), Nurul Alvia Istiqomah(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Akademi Teknik Tirta Wiyata
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


A report showed 22% of households in Indonesia did not have a proper sanitation facility in 2018 and this caused the potential discharge of their wastewater directly to the surface water, thereby, polluting the water and its surrounding environment. The quality of water resources is also declining nationwide due to pollution and this affects the cost of water treatment, therefore, it is necessary to determine the most effective treatment method to reduce this pollution. However, one of the breakthroughs observed to have met the criteria of low cost, simple operation and maintenance, and energy-saving is greywater treatment using plants (phytotechnology) combined with solar ultraviolet (UV) system. This research was, therefore, conducted to evaluate the performance of the coupled greywater treatment and investigate the possibility of its implementation in the actual condition of a selected single house. Moreover, the physical treatment and phytoremediation were combined with solar disinfection treatment, and the units selected include a collection and sedimentation chamber, filter, phytoremediation, and solar disinfection chamber. The flowrate was measured based on the difference in water level over time while the influent and effluent quality was evaluated at the inlet of the sedimentation chamber and outlet of the disinfection chamber. The results showed the organic efficiency removal was up to 92% while the solids content was found to be high at 49% and the system was able to effectively remove the ammonia at 57% and reduce the pathogenic bacteria by 88%. Moreover, the treated water quality known as the effluent met all the requirements of the Provincial Regulation of Central Java No. 5 of 2012 and Class 3 standard (water for cultivation of plants and fisheries) of Indonesian Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001. However, it did not meet the standard for toilet flushing water according to the standard from U.K, U.S.A, and Australia. This means the treatment system was unable to produce an effluent with the ability to replace the water use indoor. Therefore, it is recommended that an advanced treatment system for greywater such as Submerged Membrane Bioreactor be applied to maximize the intake of treated greywater for indoor and outdoor uses.

Keywords


Greywater; Phytoremediation; UV-system; Treatment plant; Irrigation water; Toilet flushing

Full Text:

PDF


References

Arden, S. and Ma, C., 2018. Constructed wetlands for greywater recycle and reuse: A review. The Science of the total environment, 630, pp.587–599.

Bradley, B.R., Daigger, G.T., Rubin, R. and Tchobanoglous, G., 2002. Evaluation of onsite wastewater treatment technologies using sustainable development criteria. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 4(2), pp.87–99.

Bute, R., Waghmare, E., Sarode, A., Chandekar, A., Sawwalakhe, A. and Bondre, K., 2017. Treatment Of Grey Water Using Technique Of Phytoremediation. 2017, 04(03), pp.2760–2767.

Chandekar, N. and Godboley, B., 2015. A Review on Phytoremediation A Sustainable Solution for Treatment of Kitchen Wastewater. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 6, pp.1850–1855.

Dolnicar, S., Hurlimann, A. and Grün, B., 2010. What Effects Public Acceptance of Recycled and Desalinated Water? Water research, 45, pp.933–43.

Firdayati, M., Indiyani, A., Prihandrijanti, M. and Otterpohl, R., 2015. GREYWATER IN INDONESIA: CHARACTERISTIC AND TREATMENT SYSTEMS. Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan, 21(2), pp.98-114–114.

Fountoulakis, M.S., Markakis, N., Petousi, I. and Manios, T., 2016. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing. Science of the Total Environment, 551–552, pp.706–711.

Hidayat, M.Y., Fauzi, R., Harianja, A.H. and Saragih, G.S., 2019. Efisiensi Penggunaan Grey Water dan Air Hujan dalam Rangka Menurunkan Tingkat Penggunaan Air Baku. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, 20(2), p.215.

Jefferson, B., Laine, A.L., Judd, S. and Stephenson, T., 2000. Membrane bioreactors and their role in wastewater reuse. Water Science and Technology, 41, pp.197–204.

Kasman, M., Herawati, P. and Aryani, N., 2018. Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan Melati Air (Echinodorus Palaefolius) dengan Sistem Constructed Wetlands untuk Pengolahan Grey Water. Jurnal Daur Lingkungan, 1(1), p.10.

Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional Republik Indonesia, 2019. Rancangan Teknokratik Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020-2024. Available at: <https://www.bappenas.go.id/files/rpjmn/Narasi%20RPJMN%20IV%202020-2024_Revisi%2028%20Juni%202019.pdf>.

Laaffat, J., Ouazzani, N. and Mandi, L., 2015. The evaluation of potential purification of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating greywater in semi-arid environment. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 95, pp.86–92.

Li, F., Wichmann, K. and Otterpohl, R., 2009. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses. Science of The Total Environment, 407(11), pp.3439–3449.

Liu, S., Butler, D., Memon, F.A., Makropoulos, C., Avery, L. and Jefferson, B., 2010. Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system. Water Research, 44(1), pp.267–277.

Ma, C., Xue, X., Gonzalez-Mejia, A., Garland, J. and Cashdollar, J., 2015. Sustainable Water Systems for the City of Tomorrow – A Conceptual Framework. Sustainability, 7, pp.12071–12105.

Marleni, N.N.N., Ermawati, R. and Firdaus, N.A., 2020. Selection of Municipal Wastewater Reuse Technology for Agricultural Water by Using Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA): The Case of Walcheren Wastewater Treatment Plant, The Netherlands. Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management, 8(1), pp.63–76.

Marleni, N.N.N. and Raspati, G.S., 2020. A Critical Review of Wastewater Resource Recovery Implementation in Indonesia. Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum, 6(1), pp.89–102.

Oh, K.S., Leong, J.Y.C., Poh, P.E., Chong, M.N. and Lau, E.V., 2018. A review of greywater recycling related issues: Challenges and future prospects in Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 171, pp.17–29.

Pansonato, N., Afonso, M.V.G., Salles, C.A., Boncz, M.Á. and Paulo, P.L., 2011. Solar disinfection for the post-treatment of greywater by means of a continuous flow reactor. Water Science and Technology, 64(5), pp.1178–1185.

Prathapar, S.A., Jamrah, A., Ahmed, M., Al Adawi, S., Al Sidairi, S. and Al Harassi, A., 2005. Overcoming constraints in treated greywater reuse in Oman. Desalination, 186(1), pp.177–186.

Suprihatin, H., 2014. Penurunan Konsentrasi BOD Limbah Domestik Menggunakan Sistem Wetland dengan Tanaman Hias Bintang Air (Cyperus alternifolius). Dinamika Lingkungan Indonesia, 1(2), p.80.

Suswati, A.C.S.P. and Wibisono, G., 2013. Pengolahan Limbah Domestik dengan Teknologi Taman Tanaman Air (Constructed Wetlands). Indonesian Green Technology Journal, 2(2), pp.70–77.

Wahyudianto, F.E., Oktavitri, N.I., Hariyanto, S. and Maulidia, D.N., 2019. Application of Equisetum hyemale in Constructed Wetland: Influence of Wastewater Dilution and Contact Time. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(1), pp.174–179.

Widiastuti, N., Wu, H., Ang, M. and Zhang, D. ke, 2008. The potential application of natural zeolite for greywater treatment. Desalination, 218(1–3), pp.271–280.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.58218

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1484 | views : 1245

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum


The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email : jcef.ft@ugm.ac.id
Web Analytics JCEF Stats