Water Quality Index Performance for River Pollution Control Based on Better Ecological Point of View (A Case Study in Code, Winongo, Gadjah Wong Streams)


Sri Puji Saraswati(1*), Mochammad Venly Ardion(2), Yul Hendro Widodo(3), Suwarno Hadisusanto(4)

(1) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
(2) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
(3) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
(4) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
(*) Corresponding Author


The quality of river water quality monitoring data sometimes can be inaccurate. Evaluation of the effectiveness of water pollution control programs needs good quality data to calculate the Water Quality Index (WQI) with the aim to meet the requirement to protect biodiversity and maintain various water functions. Thirty-five water quality variables from Code, Gadjah Wong, and Winongo rivers were taken as data, conducted by Environmental Agency of Yogyakarta in 2004 – 2015. There were only 19 out of 35 water quality variables having good data after improvement of monitoring data, transformation/standardization and analysis of the significant water quality variables with PCA (Principle Component Analysis) and Factor Analysis (FA). WQIs formula in the three rivers used the same 5 significant variables i.e. EC, DO, COD, NH3N, Total Coliform, and "weighted sum index” as the sub-index aggregation technique, with different sub-index coefficients. Winongo River had the best water quality and Gajah Wong River was the worst. According to the relationship of river water discharge and WQIs index, large discharge during rainy seasons does not always decrease the level of pollution, but it tends to increase the WQIs. More effective ways to improve the stream water quality during dry seasons should further be investigated.


Water quality index; water quality standard; water pollution; PCA; FA

Full Text:



Abbasi, S. A. & Sarkar, C., 2006. Qualidex-A New Software for Generating Water Quality Indice. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 119, pp. 201-231.

Badan Lingkungan Hidup (BLH) DIY, 2015. Water Quality Monitoring and Data Analysis in Yogya Special Province. Yogyakarta: Badan Lingkungan Hidup DIY.

Berthouex, P. M. & Brown, L. C., 2002. Statistic for Environmental Engineers. 2nd ed. New York: Lewis Publishers.

Dudgeon, D., 1999. Tropical Asian Streams: Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation. Hongkong: Hongkong University Press.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E., 2009. Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th ed. UK: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kannel, P. R., 2007. Application of Water Quality Indices and Dissolved Oxygen as Indicators for River Water Classification and Urban Impact Assessment. Journal Environmental Monitoring Assessment, Volume 132, pp. 93-110.

Karr, J. R., 1991. Biological Integrity: A Long-Neglected Aspect of Water Resources Management. Ecological Applications, 1(1), pp. 66-84.

Liou, S. M., Lo, S. L. & Wang, S. H., 2004. A Generalized Water Quality Index for Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 96, pp. 35-52.

Lumb, A., Halliwell, D. & Sharma, T., 2006. Application of CCME Water Quality Index to Monitor Water Quality: A Case of the Mackenzie River Basin Canada. Environment Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 113, pp. 411-429.

Mamun, A. A. & Idris, A., 2008. Revised Water Quality Indices for The Protection of Rivers in Malaysia. Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 1687-1698.

Putranda, J. & Saraswati, S. P., 2016. Identification of Water Quality Parameters with Two Transformation /Standardization Methods on Principal Component Analysis and Scilab Software. Journal of Civil Engineering Forum, 2(3), pp. 109-120.

Saraswati, S. P., 2015. Development of New Methods to Determine the Health Status of River Based on eco-hydraulics Approach, Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Saraswati, S. P., 2017. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Indices. Kuala Lumpur, International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research, pp. 260-269.

Thomann , R. V. & Mueller , J. A., 1987. Principles of Surface Water Quality Modelling and Control. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.41165

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 10819 | views : 6878


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s)

The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email : jcef.ft@ugm.ac.id
Web Analytics JCEF Stats