Challenges Facing Small and Medium Water Service Providers in Kenya: A Case of Amatsi Water Services Company, Vihiga County

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.29263

Edwin Kanda(1*), Odiero James(2), Valery O. Lutta(3), Basil T.I Ong’or(4)

(1) Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega
(2) Amatsi Water Services Company, Kakamega
(3) Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega
(4) Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The access to water services is a fundamental human right. Water and sanitation services coverage in Kenya is low even with the implementation of reforms in the sector initiated in 2002. Small and medium Water Service Providers (WSP) face numerous challenges which are stifling their ability to sustainably fulfil their mandates without relying on subsidies from state or non-state entities. The aim of this study was to analyse the challenges facing water utilities in rural Counties using Amatsi Water Services Company as a case study. The performance of the WSP was analysed for 2014 to 2017 and the challenges as depicted were classified into technical and economic parameters. The legal framework was also examined and its possible influence on the operation of the WSP. The main problems affecting small and medium WSPs include high non-revenue water, low metering of connections, low revenue collection efficiency, high operation and maintenance costs, governance challenges, insufficient funding and low quality of service. Furthermore, it is important for legislative clarity on the relationship among the institutions created by the Water Act 2016. 


Keywords


Legal framework, Non-revenue water, Sanitation, Water service regulation, Water Supply

Full Text:

PDF


References

Banerjee, S., Foster, V., Ying, Y. & Skilling, H., 2010. Cost Recovery, Equity, and Efficiency in Water Tariffs: Evidence from African Utilities (WPS 5384). [Online] Available at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/3868

 Farley, M., 2003. Non-revenue water - international best practice for Assessment, monitoring, and control. Atlantis, 12th Annual CWWA Water, Wastewater & Solid Wastonference.

 GOK, 2002. The Water Act. Nairobi: Government Printer.

GOK, 2012. The Water (Services Regulatory) Rules. Nairobi: Government Printer.

GOK, 2016. The Water Act. Nairobi: Government Printer.

González, F. G., García, M. A. R. & Guardio, 2010. Why is non-revenue water so high in so many cities? Water Resources Development, 27(02), pp. 345-360.

Herrera, V. & Post, A. E., 2014. Can developing countries both decentralize and depoliticize urban water services? Evaluating the legacy of the 1990s reform wave. World Development, Volume 64, pp. 621-641.

Hickling, S., 2014. Status of sanitation and hygiene in Africa. London: IWA Pblishing.

Howard, G., Calow, R., Macdonald, A. & Bartram, J., 2016. Climate change and water and sanitation: likely impacts and emerging trends for action. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 41,
pp. 253-276.

ICPAK, 2014. A Baseline Survey on Devolution in Kenya with Respect to Public Financial Management Systems – One Year On. [Online] Available at: https://www.icpak.com/wp.../ICPAKDevolution-Baseline-Survey-Report-2014.pdf

K'akumu, O. & Appida, P., 2006. Privatization of urban water service provision: the Kenyan experiment. Water Policy, 8(4), pp. 313-324.

LVNWSB, 2016. Water Quality standards. Water and Beyond, 12 12.

LVNWSB, 2017. List of Completed Projects Kakamega: Lake Victoria North Water Services Board. [Online] Available at: http://www.lvnwsb.go.ke/index.php/projects/completed-projects/126-mbale-water-supply

MOH, 2014. County Sanitation Profiles: State of Sanitation in Vihiga County. Nairobi: Ministry of Health. [Online] Available at: http://devolutionhub.or.ke/file/8df8ba22dac35f96ee654d1109a3d101.pdf

MWI, 2007. The National Water Services Strategy, 2007 – 2015. Nairobi: Ministry of Water and Irrigation. [Online] Available at: https://wasreb.go.ke/national-waterservices-strategy

Roche, R. & Obeng, L. A., 2014. Sanitation services in towns. In: P. Cross & Y. Coombes, eds. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa. London: IWA Publishing, pp. 143-149.

Sambu, D. K. & Tarhule, A., 2013. The progress of water service providers in meeting millennium development goals in Kenya. African Geographical Review, 32(2), 105-124., 32(2), pp. 105-124.

Wagah, G. G., Onyango, G. M. & Kibwage, J. K., 2010. Accessibility of water services in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 3(5), pp. 114-125.

WASREB, 2015. Impact: A Performance Review of Kenya’s Water Services Sector 2013 – 2014, Nairobi: Water Services Regulatory Board.

WASREB, 2016. Impact: A Performance Review of Kenya’s Water Services Sector 2014 – 2015, Nairobi: Water Services Regulatory Board.

WHO & UNICEF, 2014. Progress on drinking water and sanitation - 2014 update. Geneva/ New York:World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. [Online] Available at: https://www.unicef.pt/progressossaneamento-agua-potavel/files/progress-onsanitation-drinking-water2015.pdf

WHO & UNICEF, 2015. Progress on sanitation and drinking water – 2015 update and MDG assessment. Geneva/ New York: World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. [Online] Available at: http://files.unicef.org/publications/files/Progress_on_Sanitation_and_Drinking_Water_2015_Update_.pdf

Wichelns, D., 2013. Enhancing the performance of water prices and tariff structures in achieving socially desirable outcomes. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 29(3), pp. 310-32



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.29263

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1046 | views : 1090

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum


The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email : jcef.ft@ugm.ac.id
Web Analytics JCEF Stats