Hydrogeochemical Characterization of GeothermalWater in Arjuno-Welirang, East Java, Indonesia


Vanadia Martadiastuti(1*), Agung Harijoko(2), I Wayan Warmada(3), Kotaro Yonezu(4)

(1) Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(2) Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(3) Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(4) Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University
(*) Corresponding Author


Arjuno-Welirang Volcanic Complex (AWVC) is one of geothermal fields which
located in East Java province, Indonesia. It belongs to a Quarternary volcanic arc and has potential for development of electricity. The field is situated in a steep volcanic terrain and there are only few geothermal manifestations, i.e., hot springs, fumaroles, solfataras, steaming ground and hydrothermal alteration. This study aims to classify the type and source of geothermal fluid and to estimate the reservoir condition of Arjuno- Welirang geothermal system. Data are obtained from collecting water samples including hot springs, cold springs, river waters and rain water, then they are analyzed using ICP-AES, titration and ion chromatography.All thermal waters have temperatures from 39.5–53°C and weakly acidic pH (5.2–6.5). Cangar and Padusanhot springs show bicarbonate water, formed by steam condensing or groundwater mixing. On the other hand, Songgoriti shows Cl-HCO3 type, formed by dilution of chloride fluid by either groundwater or bicarbonate water during lateral flow. All of the waters represent immature waters, indicating no strong outflow of neutral Cl-rich deep waters in AWVC. Cl/B ratios show that all water samples have a similar mixing ratio, showing they are from common fluid sources. However, Padusan and Songgoriti have higher Cl/B ratios than Cangar, suggesting that geothermal fluids possibly have reacted with sedimentary rocks before ascending to the surface. All waters were possibly mixed with shallow groundwater and they underwent rock-water reactions at depth before ascending to the surface. An estimated temperatures reservoir calculated using CO2 geothermometer yielded temperatures of 262–263 °C based on collecting of fumarole gas at Mt. Welirang crater. According to their characteristics, Cangar and Padusan are associated with AWVC, while Songgoriti is associated with Mt. Kawi.


Water chemistry Geothermal Water chemistry _ Geothermal - Arjuno-Welirang - East Java - Indonesia

Full Text:



Ardhana, W. (1993) A Depositional Model for The Early Middle Miocene Ngrayong Formation and Implications for Exploration in The East Java Basin: Jakarta, Proceedings of the 22nd Indonesian Petroleum Association Annual Convention, 395–443pp.

Arnorrson, S. (1983) Chemical Equilibria in Icelandic Geothermal Systems: Implications for Chemical Geothermometry Investigations. Geothermics 12: 119-128p.

Arnorrson, S. and Andresdottir, A. (1995) Processes Controlling the Distribution of Boron and Chloride in Natural Waters in Iceland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59(20): 4125-4146 pp.

D’Amore, F. dan Panichi, C. (1987) Geochemistry in geothermal exploration. In: Economides, M. and Ungemach, P. (eds) Applied geothermics,Wiley & Sons, New York, 69–89pp.

Darman, H. dan Sidi, F.H. (2000) An Outline of The Geology of Indonesia, Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia, Jakarta, 54-58p.

de Genevraye, P., and Samuel, L. (1972) The Geology Journal of Applied Geology 57 MARTADIASTUTI et al. of Kendeng Zone (East Java): Jakarta, Proceedings of the First Indonesian Petroleum Association Annual Convention, 17–30pp.

Giggenbach, W.F. (1988) Geothermal solute equilibria. Derivation of Na–K–Mg–Ca geoindicators. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 52: 2749-2765p.

Giggenbach, W.F., 1991, “Chemical Techniques in Geothermal Exploration” in: D’Amore, F. (Ed.), Applications of Geochemistry in Geothermal Reservoir Development, UNITAR/UNDP on Small Energy Resources, Rome, 119-142pp.

Giggenbach, W.F. and Glover, R.B. (1992) Tectonic Regime and Major Processes Governing the Chemistry of Water and Gas Discharges from the Rotorua Geothermal Field, New Zealand, Geothermics, 21, No.1/2, 121-140 pp.

 Hadi, M.N., Kusnadi, D., and Sugianto, A. (2010) Penyelidikan Terpadu Geologi, Geokimia and Geofisika Daerah Panas Bumi Arjuno-Welirang, Kabupaten Mojokerto and Malang, Provinsi Jawa Timur (in Bahasa), Center for Geological Resouces, Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Bandung, 1-11 pp.

Hall, R., 2002, Cenozoic Geological and Plate Tectonic Evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: Computer-Based Reconstructions, Model and Animations: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 20: 353–434pp.

Han, D.M., Liang, X., Jin, M.G., Currell, M.J., Song, X.F., Liu, C.M. (2010) Evaluation of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics and Mixing Behavior in the Daying and Qicun Geothermal Systems, Xinzhou Basin. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 189: 92–104pp.

Hochstein, M.P. and Sudarman, S. (2015) Indonesian Volcanic Geothermal Systems, ProceedingsWorld Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015, 1–11pp.

Nicholls, I.A., Whitford, D.J., Harris, K.L., and Taylor, B. (1980) Variation in the Geochemistry of Mantle Sources for Tholeiitic and Calc-alkaline Mafic Magmas, Western Sunda Volcanic Arc, Indonesia: Chemical Geology 30: 177–199pp.

Nicholson, K. (1993) Geothermal Fluids : Chemistry and Exploration Technique, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 39–218p.

Santosa, S. and Atmawinata, S. (1992) Geological Map of the Kediri Quadrangle, Jawa, scale 1:100000, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung.

Santosa, S. and Suwarti, T. (1992) Geological Map of the Malang Quadrangle, Jawa, scale 1:100000, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung.

Smyth, H., Hall, R., Hamilton, J.P., and Kinny, P. (2005) East Java: Cenozoic Basins, Volcanoes and Ancient Basement: Jakarta, Proceedings of the 30th Indonesian Petroleum Association Annual Convention, 251–266p.

 Smyth, H.R., Hall, R., Nichols, G.J. (2008) Cenozoic Volcanic Arc History of East Java, Indonesia: The Stratigraphic Record of Eruptions on an Active Continental Margin, The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 436, 199–222p.

 Sribudiyani, Muchsin, N., Ryacudu, R., Kunto, T., Astono, P., Prasetya, I., Sapiie, B., Asikin, S., Harsolumakso, A.H., and Yulianto, I. (2003) The Collision of The East Java Microplate and Its Implication for Hydrocarbon Occurences in The East Java Basin, Proceedings of Indonesia Petroleum Association, Jakarta.

Taguchi, S., Vaquilar, R.L., Laguerta, E.P., Bornas, M.A.V., Solidum Jr., R.U., Reyes, P.J.D., Mirabueno, M.H.T., Daag, A.S., Bariso, E.B., Okuno, M. (2014) Geochemical Characteristics of Hot Springs in Bulusan Volcanic Complex, Southern Luzon, Philippines, Scientific Journal of Fukuoka University 44, 2nd reprint, September 2014, 129–142p.

 Truesdell, A.H. (1991) “Effects of Physical Processes on Geothermal Fluids” in: D’Amore, F. (Ed.) Applications of Geochemistry in Geothermal Reservoir Development, UNITAR/UNDP on Small Energy Resources, Rome, 71–90pp.

Untung, M., and Sato, Y. (1978) Gravity and Geological Studies in Java, Indonesia: Geological Survey of Indonesia and Geological Survey of Japan Special Publication 6, 207p.

 Utama, H.W. (2017) Vulkanisme and Struktur Geologi Daerah Panas Bumi Kompleks Gunung Api Arjuno-Welirang, Provinsi Jawa Timur (in Bahasa), unpublished thesis manuscript from Graduate Program of Department of Geological Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 1–137p.

 Uzelli, T., Baba, A., Mungan, G.G., Dirik, R.K., Sozbilir, H. (2017) Conceptual Model of the Gulbahce Geothermal System, Western Anatolia, Turkey: Based on Structural and Hydrochemical Data, Journal of Geothermics 68: 67–85pp.

 van Bemmelen, R.W. (1949) The Geology of Indonesia Volume 1A, Government Printing Office, The Hague, Netherlands, 25–30p.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jag.39979

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 205 | views : 135


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Vanadia Martadiastuti, Agung Harijoko, I Wayan Warmada, Kotaro Yonezu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Applied Geology Indexed by: