Variation of Slab Component in Ancient and Modern Merapi Products: A Detailed Look into Slab Derived Fluid Fluctuation over the Living Span of One of the Most Active Volcanoes in Sunda Arc

https://doi.org/10.22146/jag.30253

Esti Handini(1*), Toshiaki Hasenaka(2), Agung Harijoko(3), Yasushi Mori(4)

(1) Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(2) Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto-shi, 860-8555, Japan
(3) Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(4) Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto-shi, 860-8555, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Holocene eruptions of Merapi have produced both medium-K and high-K calc alkaline series which correspond to products older and younger than 1900 years respectively. The change has been attributed to increasing sediment input as the volcano matures. This study presents two Merapi samples which represent Ancient and Modern Merapi. The two samples are analyzed for subduction components including B, Ba, Sr, and Pb using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and prompt gamma ray analysis (PGA). Our finding shows that Ancient Merapi sample from Plawangan Hill lava is close in affinities with younger than 1900 years high-K magma series. On the other hand, Modern Merapi sample from 2006 eruption juvenile is plotted within medium-K magma series which are observed in eruption products older than 1900 years. Ratios of fluid mobile elements to high field strength element (HFSE) (i.e. B/Nb, Ba/Y, Pb/Nb) consistently show that Ancient Merapi sample has higher input of slab derived fluid than Modern Merapi sample. A model using B/Nb and Ba/Nb suggests that Plawangan magma requires 1.5 % of sediment derived fluid, higher than estimated in 2006 eruption magma (1.2 %) and medium-K series magma, and within the range of high-K series magma, to explain its slab component enrichment. This evidence suggests that slab derived component addition to the sub-arc mantle wedge highly fluctuates over short period of evolution of a volcano. One possible explanation is the presence of veined hydrous metasomatized sub-arc mantle as Merapi magma source which allows melting of different mantle area to produce fluctuation of slab components in the course of evolution of Merapi magmas.

Keywords


Boron Slab component Slab derived fluid contribution Ancient and Modern Merapi Sunda arc

Full Text:

PDF


References

Aizawa, Y., Tatsumi, Y. and Yamada, H. (1999) Element transport by dehydration of subducted sediments Implication for arc and ocean island magmatism. Island Arc 8: 38-46.

Andreastuti, S.D. (1999) Stratigraphy and geochemistry of Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia: implication for assessment of volcanic hazard.Ph.D. thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

Bahar, I. (1984) Contribution à la connaissance du volcanisme Indonésien: Le Merapi (Centre Java), cadre structural, pétrologie, géochemie et implications volcanologiques. Thèse Doct. III ème cycle, Univ. de Motpellier, 213 pp.

Bebout, G.E., Ryan, J.G., Leeman, W.R. and Bebout, A.E.(1999) Fractionation of trace elements by subduction-zone metamorphism: Effect of convergent-margin thermal evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 171: 63-81.

Ben Othman, D., White, W.M. and Patchett, J. (1989) The geochemistry of marine sediments, island arc magma genesis and crust-mantle recycling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 94: 1-21.

Bhertommier, P. (1990) Etude volcanologique du Merapi (Centre Java). Téphrostratigraphie et Chrologie. Mécanismes éruptifs. Thèse Doct. III ème cycle, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, 115 pp.

Boekhold van. (1972) Relaasvan een toght naar den Bradenden berg op Java (den Merapi) 17/18 juli 1786 en 9/10 augustus 1786. Bataav. Genoot. Verh. 6: 8-17

Brenan, J.M., Shaw, H.F., Ryerson, F.J. and Phinney, D.L. (1995) Mineral-aqueous fluid partition of trace elements at 9008C and 2.0 GPa: Constraints on the trace element chemistry of mantle and deep crustal fluids. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 59: 3331–3350.

Camus, G., Gourgaud, A., Mossand-Bhertommier, P.-C. and Vincent, P.M. (2000) Merapi (Central Java, Indonesia): an outline of the structural and magmatological evolution, with a special emphasis to the major pyroclastic events. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 100: 139-163.

Charbonnier, S. and Gertisser, R. (2008) Field observations and surface characteristics of pristine block-and-ash flow deposits from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177: 971-982.

Chauvel, C. And Blichert-Toft, J. (2001) A hafnium isotope and trace element perspective on melting of the depleted mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 190: 137-151.

Elliott, T. (2003) Tracers of the slab. In: Inside the subduction factory. Geophysical Monograph, 138.

Gertisser, R. and Keller, J.(2003a) Temporal variations in magma composition at Merapi volcano (Central Java, Indonesia): magmatic cycles during the past 2000 years of explosive activity. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 123: 1-23.

Gertisser, R. and Keller, J. (2003b) Trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and O isotope variations in medium K and high-K volcanic rocks from Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia: evidence for the involvement of subducted sediments in Sunda arc magma genesis. Journal of Petrology 44: 457-489.

Gertisser, R., Self, S., Thomas, L.E., Handley, H.K., Calsteren, P.V. and Wolff, J.A. (2012) Process and timescales of magma genesis and differentiation leading to the great Tambora eruption in 1815. Journal of Petrology 53: 271-297.

Handley, H.K., Macpherson, C.G., Davidson, J.P., Berlo, K. and Lowry, D. (2007) Constraining fluid and sediment contributions to subduction-related magmatism in Indonesia: Ijen volcanic complex. Journal of Petrology 48: 1155-1183.

Handley, H.K., Turner, S., Macpherson, C.G., Gertisser, R. and Davidson, J.P. (2011) Hf-Nd isotope and trace element constraints on subduction inputs at island arcs: limitations of Hf anomalies as sediment input indicators. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 304: 212-223.

Hanyu, T., Gill, J., Tatsumi, Y., Kimura, J-I., Sato, K., Chang, Q., Senda, R., Miyazaki, T., Hirahara, Y. and Takahashi, T. (2012) Across- and along-arc geochemical variations of lava chemistry in the Sangihe arc: Various fluid and melt slab fluxes in response to slab temperature. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 13, 10.

Ishikawa, T. and Nakamura, E. (1993) Boron isotope systematics of marine sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 117: 567-580.

Ishikawa, T. and Nakamura, E. (1994) Origin of the slab component in arc lavas from across-arc variation of B and Pb isotopes. Nature 370: 205–208.

Johnson, M.C. and Plank, T. (1999) Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 1.

Kogiso, T., Tatsumi, Y. and Nakao, S. (1997) Trace element transport during dehydration processes in the subducted oceanic crust: 1. Experiments and implications for the origin of ocean island basalts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 148: 193-205.

Moran, A.E., Sisson, V.B. and Leeman, W.P. (1992) Boron depletion during progressive metamorphism: implications for subdution processes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 111: 331-349.

Mori, Y. and Mashima, H. (2005) X-ray fluorescence analysis of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using 1:5 dilution glass beads. Bulletin of Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Series A3, 1-12.

Morris, J.D., Leeman, W.P. and Tera, F. (1990). The subducted component in island arc lavas: Constraints from Be isotopes and B-Be systematics. Nature 344: 31-36.

Newhall, C.G., Bronto, S., Alloway, B., Banks, N.G., Bahar, I., del Marmol, M.A., Hadisantono, R.D., Holcomb, R.T., McGeehin, J., Miksic, J.N., Rubin, M., Sayudi, S.D., Sukhyar, R., Andreastuti, S., Tilling, R.I., Torley, R., Trimble, D. and Wirakusumah, A.D. (2000) 10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java, archaeological and modern implications. Journal of Volcanological and Geothermal Research 100: 9-50

Pearce, J.A., Stern, R.J., Bloomer, S.H. and Fryer, P. (2005) Geochemical mapping of the Mariana arc-bassin system: implications for the nature and distribution of subduction components. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 6.

Ratdomopurbo, A., Beauducel, F., subandriyo, J., Nandaka, I.G.M.A., Newhall, C.G., Suharna, Sayudi, D.S., Suparwaka, H. and Sunarta. (2013) Overview of the 2006 eruption of Mt. Merapi. Journal of Volcanological and Geothermal Research 261: 87-97.

Ryan, J.G., Morris, J.D., Tera, F., Leeman, W.P. and Tsvetkov, A. (1995) Cross-arc geochemical variations in the Kurile arc as a function of slab depth. Science 270: 625–627.

Sano, T., Fukuoka, T., Hasenaka, T., Yonezawa, C., Matsue, H. and Sawahata, H. (1999) Accurate and efficient determination of boron content in volcanic rocks by neutron induced prompt gammaray analysis. Journal of Radioanalitycal and Nuclear Chemistry 239: 613-617.

Sano, T., Hasenaka, T., Shimaoka, A., Yonezawa, C. and Fukuoka, T. (2001) Boron contents of Japan trench sediments and Iwate basaltic lavas, Northeast Japan arc: estimation of sediment-derived fluid contribution in mantle wedge. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 186: 187-198.

Sano, T., Fukuoka, T. and Hasenaka, T. (2004) Determination of chlorine contents in Geological Survey of Japan reference materials by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. Geostandard and Geoanalysis Research 28: 443-448.

Sendjaja, Y.A., Kimura, J. and Sunardi, E. (2009) Across-arc geochemical variation of Quaternary lavas in West Java, Indonesia: Mass-balance elucidation using arc basalt simulator model. Island Arc 18: 201-224. Smith, H.J., Spivack, A.J., Staudigel, H. and Hart, S.R. (1995) The boron isotopic composition of altered oceanic crust. Chemical Geology 126: 119-135.

Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F. (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds) Magmatism in the ocean basins. Geological Society Special Publication 42: 313-345.

Tatsumi, Y. and Kogiso, T. (1997) Trace element transport during dehydration processes in the subducted oceanic crust: 2. Origin of chemical and physical characteristics in arc magmatism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 148: 207-221.

Tera, F., Brown, L., Morris, J., Sacks, I.S., Klein, J. and Middleton, R. (1986) Sediment incorporation in island arc magmas: inference from Be. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 50: 535-550.

Thompson, G., Bryan, W.B., Frey, F.A. and Sung, C.M. (1974) Petrology and geochemistry of basalts and related rocks from sites 214, 215, 216, DSDP Leg 22, Indian Ocean. Initial Reports Deep Sea Drilling Project 22: 459-468.

Turner, S. and Foden, J. (2001) U, Th and Ra disequilibria, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and trace element variations in Sunda arc lavas: predominance of a subducted sediment component. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology 142: 43-57.

Vroon, P.Z., Lowry, D., Van Bergen, M.J., Boyce, A.J. and Mattey, D.P. (2001) Oxygen isotope systematics of the Banda Arc: low d O despite involvement of subducted continental material in magma genesis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65: 589-609.18 Vroon, P.Z., Van Bergen, M.J., White, W.M. and Varekamp, J.C. (1993) Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of the Banda arc, Indonesia: combined subduction and assimilation of continental material. Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 22349-22366.

Whitford, D.J. and Jezek, P.A. (1982) Isotopic constraints on the role of subducted sialic material in Indonesian island-arc magmatism. Geological Society of America Bulletin 93: 504-513.

Yonezawa, C., Wood, A.K.H., Hoshi, M., Ito, Y. and Tachikawa, E. (1992) The characteristics of the prompt gamma-ray analyzing system at the neutron beam guides of JRR-3M. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A329: 207-216.

Yonezawa, C. and Wood, A.K.H. (1995) Prompt Gray analysis of boron with cold and thermal neutron guide beams. Analytical Chemistry 67: 44664470.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jag.30253

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1218 | views : 628

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Applied Geology

Journal of Applied Geology Indexed by:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License