Dinar Arifianto(1*)

(1) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author




Ureteral obstruction is an urinary tract disorder that can occur in animals and human. The effect of total unilateral ureteral obstruction on the kidneys is fatal if not immediately treated because it can cause ipsilateral or contralateral kidney damage. This study was conducted to determine histopathological features, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels in white rats that had unilateral ureteral obstruction. Thirty-six 2,5 months female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I (control) was operated laparotomy. Group II was operated by ligating the right ureter in the proximal part. Group III was operated by ligating the right ureter in the distal part. One week after ligation three rats were taken randomly from each group and their blood was taken for BUN and creatinine analysis. The right and left kidneys were taken to make histopathological preparations. The same treatment was carried out at 2nd , 3rd , and 4th weeks after surgery. Statistical analysis showed an increase in BUN and creatinine. Ipsilateral renal hydronephrosis occurs from the first week after unilateral ureteral ligation, which is characterized by renal pelvic dilatation, parenchymal depletion, vacuolization and fluid deposits in the right kidney. The ipsilateral renal histopathology examination showed glomerular atrophy and tubular dilatation in the first week after ligation. Cysts formation and interstitial fibrosis occurred on the 2nd  to 4th week of the ipsilateral kidney and geting worse along with the length of obstruction time. Compensatory reaction occurred in the contralateral kidney was found with dilatation of tubulus distal and proximal from the first week after ligation. This study showed that unilateral ureteral ligation in the proximal and distal regions causes an increase in BUN and creatinine and hydronephrosis of the ipsilateral kidney which appears macroscopically and histopathologically.


Keywords: ureteral obstruction, kidney, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, histopathology









Full Text:




Cannon, A. B., Westropp, J. L., Ruby, A. L. and Kass, P. H.,2007. Evaluationof trends in urolith composition in cats: 5,230 cases (1985-2004). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 231: 570-576.

Canton, A. D., Corradi, A., Stanz, R., Maruccio, G., Migone, L., 1974. Effects of 24-hour unilateral obstruction on glomerular hemodynamics in rat kidney. Kidney International 15: 457-462.

Castro, B. B. A., Colugnati, F. A. B., Cenedeze, M. A., Suassuna, P. G. A., Pinheiro, H. S. 2013. Standardization of renal function evaluation in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Federal University of Juiz de Fora's colony. Federal University of Juiz de For a Article.:139-149.

Chevalier, R. L., Forbes, M. S., Tornhill, B. A., 2009. Ureteral Obstruction as A Model of Renal Interstitial Fibrosis and Obstructive Nephropathy. Kidney International: 1145-1153.

Cunningham, J.G., Klein, B.G., 2007. Text Book of Veterinary Physiology 4th edition. Saunders Elsavier. St. Louis, Missouri.

Decramer, S., Bascands, J.L., Schanstra, J.P., 2007. Non-invasive markers of ureteropelvic junction obstruction.World J Urol 25: 457–465.

El-Hakiem, M.A.H.A., Ellah M.R.A., Youssef, H.A., Saleh A.S., Hassanein K.M.A., 2011.Effect of Unilateral Ligation on Blood Constituents, Renal Histopathology and Ultrasonography in Dogs. Medwell Journal: 356-364.

Fischer, J.R., Lane, I.F., Stokes, J.S., 2009. Acute Postrenal Azotemia: Etiology, Clinicopathology, and Pathophysiology. Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians: 520-531.

Forbes, M. S., Thornhill, B. A., Galarreta, C. I., Minor, J. J., Gordon, K. A., Chevalier, R. L. 2013. Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction in the neonatal mouse delays maturation of both kidneys and leads to late formation of atubular glomeruli. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 305: 1736–1746.

Han, Z. Z., Xu, H. D., Kim, H. K., Ahn, T. H., Bae, J. S., Lee, J. Y., Gil, K. H., Lee, J. Y., Woo, S. J., Yoo, H. J., Lee, H. K. Kim, K. H., Park, C. K., Zhang, H. S. Song, S. W. 2010. Reference Data of the Main Physiological Parameters in Control Sprague-Dawley Rats from Pre-clinical Toxicity Studies. Lab. Anim. Res: 26(2), 153-164.

Ito, K., Chen, J., Chaar, M. E., Stern, J.M., Seshan, S.V., Khodadadian, J.J., Richardson, I., Hyman, M.J., Vaughan Jr, D., Poppas, D.P., Felsen, D., 2004. Renal damage progresses despite improvement of renal function after relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction in adult rats. Am J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 287: 1283-1293.

Kausik, S. dan Segura, J.W., 2003. Surgical Management of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Adults. International Braz. J. Urol. 29 (1).

Kochin, E. J., Gregory, C. R., Wisner, E., Cain, G. and Gourley, I. M., 1993.Evaluation of a method of ureteroneocystostomy in cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 202:257-260.

Kyles, A. E., Hardie, E. M., Wooden, B. G., Adin, C. A., Stone, E. A., Gregory, C. R., Mathews, K. G., Cowgill, L. D., Vaden, S., Nyland, T. G. and Ling, G.V., 2005. Clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi: 163 cases (1984-2002). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 226: 932- 936.

Lane, D. R., Cooper, B. C., 2003. Veterinary Nursing 3rd edition. Butterworth Heinemann. London: 64-66.

Lim, KB., Ho, H., Foo, KT., Wong, MYC., Chong, SF., 2013. Comparison of intravesical prostatic protrusion, prostate volume and serum prostatic-specific antigen in the evaluation of bladder outlet obstruction.International Journal of Urology: 1509–1513.

Madsen, M. G., 2012. Urinary Biomarkers in Hydronephrosis. Danish Medical Journal :1-20.

Rosenfeld and Dial, (2010),

Makhdoomi, D.M. and Gazi, M.A., 2013. Obstructive Urolithiasis in Ruminants – A Review.Vet. World 6(4): 233-238.

Radovic, N., Aralica, G., Ljubanovic, D. G. Jelec, V., Kontek, M. 2014. Effect of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction and Anti-Angiotensin II Treatment on Renal Tubule Cell Apoptosis and Interstitial Fibrosis in Rats. Coll. Antropol. 38 (2): 583–588.

Rhoades, R. A., Tanner, G. A., 2003. Medical Physiology 2nd edition. Lippincott & Wilkins: 352.

Rowse, A.D., 2003. Urinary Tract Obstruction. The Medicine Publishing Company.

Schrier, R.W., 2008. Blood Urea Nitrogen and Serum Creatinine Not Married in Heart Failure. Circ Heart Fail 1:2-5.

Segev, G., 2011. Diseases of the ureter. In: Bartges, J. and Polzin, D.J. eds. Nephrology and Urology of Small Animals Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa: 583-590.

Shipov, A., Segev, G., 2013. Ureteral Obstruction in Dogs and Cats.Israel J. Vet Med 68: 71-76

Stevenson, A.E., 2002. The Incidence of Urolithiasis in Cats and Dogs and the Influence of Diet in Formation and Prevention of Recurrence. Institute of Urology and Nephrology.University College London.

Trnka, P., Hiatt, M J.,Tarantal, AF., Matsell, D. G., 2012. Congenital Urinary Tract Obstruction: Defining Markers of Developmental Kidney Injury. Pediaric Research: 446-454.

Thornhill, B. A., Burt, L. E. Chen, C., Forbes, M. S., Chevalier, R. I. 2005. Variable chronic partial ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat: A new model of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Kidney International 67: 42–52.

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W., Campbell, T. W., 2012. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry 2nd edition. Willey-Blackwell: 323-377.

Tucci, S. J., Beduschi, M.C., Mazzetto, S.A., Vanni, J.C., 1997. An experimental model for the measurement of renal function after temporary ureteral obstruction in the rat. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 30: 855-860.

Wu, H. H., Jia, H. R., Zhang, Y., Liu, L., Xu, D. B., Sun, H. R., 2015. Monitoring the Progression of Renal Fibrosis by T2‑weighte Signal Intensity and Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cisplatin induced Rat Models. Chinese Medical Journal 128: 626-631.

Zelman, S. J., Zenser, T. V. dan Davis, B. B.,1983. Renal growth in response to unilateral ureteral obstruction. Kidney International 23: 594-598.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijvs.v1i1.46515

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1307 | views : 3235


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright of IJVS (Indonesian Journal of Veterinary Sciences) ISSN 2722-421X (online).

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas of Gadjah Mada

Fauna Strat, No.2, Karangmalang, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Phone: 0274-560862

Fax: 0274-560861

Email: ijvs.fkh@ugm.ac.id

Indonesian Journal of Vaterinary Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.