Geospatial Analysis of Hydrometeorological Dynamics for Managing Socio-economic and COVID-19 Threats in the Ossiomo Watershed, Nigeria

Innocent Ehiaguina Bello(1*), Halilu A. Shaba(2)

(1) NASRDA, Obasanjo Space Centre, PMB 437 Garki 2, Airport Road, Lugbe, Abuja, Nigeria
(2) National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA).Obasanjo Space Centre, Airport Road, Abuja, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author


The geographical occurrence and spread of the current novel COVID-19 pandemic are partly a function of the awareness, socio-economics, mobility, and health management practices in place. Ossiomo watershed in Edo State, Nigeria, is mainly a rural region with limited healthcare access and abundant water from River Ossiomo. One of the recommendations for preventing COVID-19 is washing hands with soap using running water. Thus, the novel COVID-19, a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral disease, requires effective management of available water resources for sustainable health development. The first confirmed case relating to the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria was announced on February 27, 2020, when an Italian citizen in Lagos tested positive for the virus. In most rural Africa, including Ossiomo, no pipe-borne water except rain harvesting for survival. Using GIS Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation technique, the rainfall map produced (derived from a 31-year collated geo-located hydro-meteorological data - rainfall and discharge, covering the Ossiomo watershed) shows that rainfall decreases northward with minimum monthly precipitation of 18.8mm in January and to the south with a mean maximum rainfall of 339.0mm in July. NCDC records on Covid-19 were used to create Choropleth maps that revealed very low confirmed cases and relatively high deaths, though considered relatively low compared with global statistics. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) further indicates a strong correlation between rainfall and catchment discharge with r=0.717. With adequate socio-economic activities and water provisions, coupled with effective COVID-19 management practices, the pandemic may not linger in the study area.


Catchment discharge; COVID-19; Dam; Hydroelectric power; Precipitation; Watershed.


Adepoju, P. (2020). Nigeria responds to COVID-19; first case detected in sub-Saharan Africa. Nature Medicine (Online): Accessed April 1, 2020 from

Avery, T.E. (1997). Interpretation of Aerial photographs. Minneapolis: Burgess Publish Company.

Ayoade, J. O. (1993). Introduction to Climatology for the tropics. Lagos: Spectrum books limited.

Aziegbe, F.I. (2006). Manual of water resources. Nigeria: NONO Publishers.

Babatolu, J.S. and Akinnubi, R.T. (2014). Influence of climate change in Niger River Basin Development Authority area on Niger runoff, Nigeria. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, 5(9), 1-8

Balogun, O. Y. (ed). (2012). The national Atlas of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2nd edition. Abuja; OSGOF

Bello, I. E., Adzandeh, A. & Rilwani, M. L. (2014). Geoinformatics Characterisation of Drainage Systems within Muya Watershed in the Upper Niger Drainage Basin, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Earth & Environmental Sciences (USA), 2(3): 18 – 36. (Online):

Brown, T. C. Froemke, P. (2012). Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats water quality: BioSciences, 62(2), 136-146

Carreras, M., Saha, A. and Thompson, J. (2020). Rapid Assessment of the Impact of COVID-19 on Food Systems and Rural Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. APRA COVID-19 Synthesis Report 1, Brighton: Future Agricultures Consortium.

Cecchini, C. (2020). 5 lessons for the future of water. (Online): Accessed April 16, 2020 from World Economic Forum:

Chang, H. J. (2003) Basin hydrologic response to changes in climate and land use: the Conestoga River, PA. Physical Geography, 24 (3): 222–247.

Chattopadhyay, S. (2020). Unraveling Urban India's Water Challenges Amid COVID-19. (Online): Access April 17, 2020 from The Diplomat:

Egwue, O.L., Aghuba, I. K., and Mukaila, R. (2020), Assessment of Rural Households Food Insecurity During Covid-19 Pandemic in South-East Nigeria. International Journal of Research-GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(12), 182-194.

Faniran, A. O. and Ojo, O. (1980). Man's physical environment. London: Heinemann.

Francesconi, N.; Wouterse, F.; Namuyiga, D. B., (2021). Agricultural Cooperatives and COVID-19 in Southeast Africa. The Role of Managerial Capital for Rural Resilience. Sustainability, 13(1046), 1-13. su13031046.

Fryirs, K. A. and Brierley, G.J. (2013). Geomorphic analysis of river systems: An approach to reading landscape. Uk: Jon Wiley and Sons, Ltd. 345p.

Ghayoumian, J., Ghermezcheshme, B., Feiznia, S. and Noroozi, A. A. (2005). Integrating GIS and DSS for Identification of Suitable Areas for Artificial Recharge, Case Study, Meimeh Basin, Isfahan, Iran. Environmental Geology, 47, 493-500.

Graham, D.N. and Butts, M. B. (2005). Flexible, integrated watershed modelling with MIKE. In: V.P. Singh and D.K. Frevert (Eds.), Watershed Models, CRC Press, Boca Raton,  245-272. (Online): Retrieved January 2, 2016 from

Heal, G. (2000). Nature and the marketplace. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Ikhile, C. I. (2016). Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Benin Region, Edo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Geosciences, 7, 144-157.

Ikhile, C. I. and Oyebande, L. (2007). Application of GIS in land-use studies in the Osse-Ossiomo River basin, Nigeria. Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring and Change Detection. Proceedings of Symposium HS3007 at IUGG2007, Perugia, July 2007. IAHS Publ. 316, 2007. p245

Kundu, P. M. and Olang, L. O. (2011). The impact of land use change on runoff and peak flood discharges for the Nyando River in Lake Victoria drainage basin, Kenya. WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, 153: 83 - 94. doi:10.2495/WS110081

Lace, C. H. and Holden, Z. A. (2009). Declining annual stream flow distributions in the Pacific Northwest United States, 1948-2006.Geophyc Res Lett 36.

Lai, Z., Li, S., Lv, G., Pan, Z., and Fei, G. (2016). Watershed delineation using hydrographic features and a DEM in plain river network region. Hydrological Processes, 276 - 288. Doi.10.1002/hyp.10612.

Mango, L. M., Melesse, A. M., McClain, M. E., Gann, D. and Setegn, S. G. (2011). Land use and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: results of a modeling study to support better resource management. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15: 2245–2258. doi:10.5194/hess-15-2245-2011

Manning, J. C. (1987). Applied Principle of Hydrology. Clombus, Ohio: Merril Publishng Company.

Martins, A. K. and Gadiga, B. L. (2015). Hydrological and morphometric analysis of upper Yedzaram catchment of Mubi in Adamawa State, Nigeria Using Geographic Information System (GIS). World Environment, 5(2), 63-69. DOI: 10.5923/j.env.20150502.03

MccabeJr,  G.I. and Wolock, D.M. (1997). Climate change and the detection of trends in annual runoff. Clim Res 8, 129-134.

NCDC (2020). first-case-of-corona-virus-disease-confirmed-in-nigeria. Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. (Online): Accessed March 9, 2020 from

Nguyen, E. and Somayajula, N (2020). Access to Water Vital in COVID-19 Response: On World Water Day, Marginalized Populations Still Lack Access to Basic Hygiene Measures. (Online): Accessed April 16, 2020 from Human Rights Watch:

Odemerho, F. O. (1984). The effects of shifting cultivation on stream channel size and hydraulic geometry in small headwater basin of South-western Nigeria. Geografiska Ander, 66A(4): 327-340.

Odjugo, P. A. O. (2011). Climate change and global warming: The Nigerian perspective. J. Sustainable Dev. Environ. Prot., 1, 6-17.

Ogunkoya, O. O. (2013). All Rivers Run Into The Sea; Yet The Sea Is Not Full. Inaugural lecture Series 256, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Rood, S.B., Samuelson, G.M., Weber, J.K. and Wywrot, K.A. (2005). Twentieth-century decline in streamflow from the hydrographic apex of North America. J Hydrol, 306, 215-233.

Shaba, H. A. (2003). Using digital terrain model in assessing slope erosion risk potential around lower Usuma Dam, Abuja. In: N. O. Uluocha and A. A. Obafemi (eds.) Cartography, GIS and sustainable environmental management. Lagos: Nigerian Cartographic Association (NCA).  61 – 66.

Shereen, M. A., Khan, S., Kazmi, A., Bashir, N., and Siddique, R. (2020). COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research, 24, 91-98.

Shiklomanor, A. I., Lammers, R. B., Rawlins, M. A., Smith, L.C. and Pavelsky, T. M. (2007). Temporal and Spatial variations in maximum river discharge from a new Russian data set. J Geophys Res 112.

Udo, R. K. (1978). Geographical regions of Nigeria. London: Heinemann

Ward, R. C. and Robinson, M. (2011). Principle of Hydrology.4th Edition. London: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 450p.

WHO (2020). Coronavirus. (Online): Accessed April 15, 2020 from World Health Organization:

WMO (1997). A comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.

Xu, H. and Luo, Y. (2015). Climate change and its impacts on river discharge in two climate regions in China, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4609-4618, DOI:, 2015.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 146


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Innocent Ehiaguina Bello

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol 50 No 1 the Year 2018 - Vol 54 No 2 the Year 2022

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)