Climatic Anomalies and Glacial Dynamics in the Himalayan Region Northern Pakistan: A Spatio-Statistical Approach

Zarka Mukhtar(1), Fazlul Haq(2*), Syed Ali Asad Naqvi(3), Munazza Afreen(4)

(1) Free University of Bozen-Bolzano Piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano-Italy
(2) Professor Department of Geography, Government College University Faisalabad Pakistan
(3) Department of Geography, Government College University Faisalabad Pakistan
(4) Department of Geography, Government College University Faisalabad Pakistan
(*) Corresponding Author


Glaciers are always climate-sensitive and affected by minor changes in temperature and other climatic elements. Past studies on the northern mountain ranges of Pakistan reveal changes in climatic patterns in and around these ranges. In this study, an attempt is made to explore and assess the temporal and spatial fluctuations occurring in the ice cover of the Himalayan Region of Pakistan as a result of changes in climatic pattern. Satellite imageries and meteorological data were used to explore the dynamics of both the ice cover and climatic elements. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System were used to detect changes in snow cover both spatially and temporally. Various statistical techniques, mainly Mann Kendall Trend Test and Sen’s Slope Estimator, were used to analyze the temporal trend of climatic elements. Moreover, correlation and regression analysis were applied to establish the relationship between climate and ice cover. Analysis of the data reveals that the temporal trend in ice cover is not monotonic as there is glacial advancement in certain years while retreating in others. Moreover, it was found out that climatic elements such as temperature and precipitation have recorded changes during the past few decades.


Glacier Retreat; Climate Change; Ice Cover; Himalayan Glaciers; Mann Kendall Trend Analysis

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