Determination of Groundwater Flow Pattern in the basement complex terrain of Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.56539

A. Akinola Oyedele(1*), Gbenga Olayanju(2), Taiwo Oyedele(3), Kehinde Oyedele(4), Taofeek Ewumi(5), Funmi Ogunlana(6)

(1) Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria
(2) Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
(3) Geological Services, Ogun State Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Abeokuta, Nigeria
(4) INLANDS & Associates, Abeokuta, Nigeria
(5) Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria
(6) Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Hydrostatic level sampling, geo-referencing and Geographic Information System were employed to delineate the major groundwater recharge / discharge zones, the groundwater flow direction and the groundwater divides in Ado-Ekiti metropolis with the objective of groundwater resource protection.  Static water level measurements were made from 108 hand – dug wells evenly distributed on a regional basis. The latitudes, longitudes and elevations above mean sea level of the well points were measured using the Global Positioning System. A mean value of 5.84 ± 2.35 m above mean sea level was observed for the depths to the static water level with a mean value of 408.27 ± 46.06 m above mean sea level for the groundwater head. The contour maps obtained enabled the delineation of the major groundwater recharge / discharge zones, the groundwater flow direction and the groundwater divides with the regional tendency of the underground flow approximately lying along the Northwest – Southeast direction and groundwater divides along the South – Eastern/ South – Western axes of the Central portion. Strict environmental ethics must be enforced around the groundwater recharge / discharge zones and flow directions in order to avoid groundwater contamination.


Keywords


dumpsite; flow direction; groundwater head; leachates; water table

Full Text:

PDF


References

Adekeye, J. I. D., & Ishaku, J. M. (2004). Groundwater Contamination in Shallow Aquifers of

Jimeta Metropolis, Adamawa State, NE, Nigeria. Zuma Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6(1), 150-159.

Adeyemo, I. A., Omosuyi, G. O.,Olayanju, G. M., & Omoniyi, G. K. (2014). Hydrogeologic and

Geoelectric Determination of Groundwater Flow Pattern in Alaba-Apatapiti Layouts, Akure, Nigeria. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 3(2), 44-52.

Amah, E. A., & Agbebia, M. A. (2015). Determination of Groundwater Flow Direction in

Ekintae Limestone Quarry near Mfamosing, South-Eastern, Nigeria. International Journal of Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3(6), 1-5.

Arsène, M., Elvis, B. W. W., Daniel, G., Théophile, N., Kelian, K., & Jean, N. (2018).

Hydrogeophysical Investigation for Groundwater Resources from Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Self-Potential Data in the Méiganga Area, Adamawa, Cameroon. International Journal of Geophysics, Article ID 2697585, 14 p, https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2697585

Awopetu, M. S., & Baruwa, A. (2017). Appraisal of Groundwater Quality in Ado-Ekiti

Metropolitan Area, Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science, 3(2), 117 -121.

Bon, A. F., Ngoss, T. A. M., Mboudou, G. E., Banakeng, L. A., Ngoupayou, J. R. N., & Ekodeck

G. E. (2021). Groundwater flow patterns, hydrogeochemistry and metals background levels of shallow hard rock aquifer in a humid tropical urban area in sub-Saharan Africa- A case study from Ol´ezoa watershed (Yaound´e-Cameroon), Journal of Hydrology, Regional Studies 37 10090 4, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100904

Braga, A. C. O., Filhow, W. M., & Dourado, J. C. (2006). Resistivity (DC) Method Applied To

Aquifer Protection Studies. Brazilian Journal of Geophysics, 24(4), 573-581.

Buddermeier, R. W., & Schloss, J. A. (2000). Groundwater Storage and Flow. Retrieved fromhttp://www.kgs. Ukans.edu/Hight plains/atlas//apgengw.htm.

Dada, T. E., Awokunmi, E. E., Falegan, C. R., & Olanipekun, E. O. (2011). Status of

Groundwater quality in selected areas of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 145, 339-348.

Dai, F. C., Lee, C. F., & Zhang, X. H. (2001). GIS-based geo-environmental evaluation for urban land-use planning: a case study. Engineering geology. 61(4), 257-271.

Daramola, J., Ekhwan, T. M., Choy, L. K., Mokhtar, J., & Alakeji, J. A. (2022). Impacts of climatic Variation on water balance and yield of watershed (Insights from The Kaduna Watershed, North Central Nigeria). Indonesian Journal of Geography 54(1), 135-146, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/ijg.68138

Ebisemiju, F. S. (1993). Ado-Ekiti Region - A Geographical Analysis and Master Plan. Alpha Prints, 15-30.

Fadahunsi, J. T. (2010). A Perspective View on the Development and Applications of Geographical Information System (GIS) in Nigeria. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 11(1), 301-308.

Fashae, O. A., Tijani, M. N., Talabi, A. O., & Adedeji, O. I. (2014). Delineation of groundwater Potential zones in the crystalline basement terrain of SW-Nigeria: an integrated GIS and remote sensing approach. Applied Water Science, 4, 19-38, DOI 10.1007/s13201-013-0127-9

Gbadebo, A. M., Oyedepo, J. A., & Taiwo, A. M. (2010). Variability of Nitrate in Groundwater in Some Parts of Southwestern Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 11(2), 572-584.

Hendrayana, H., Riyanto, I. A., Nuha, A., & Lisan, A. R. K. (2021). Unregistered artesian Well Management in Pasuruan, Indonesia: An Attempt to Protect Groundwater Resources. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 53(3), 453-464, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.22146/ijg.68185

Ige, S. O., & Adetunji, A. A. (2014). On Some Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Household Sanitation in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(9), 21- 29.

Ishaku, J. M., Ankidawa, B. A., & Abbo, A. M. (2015). Groundwater Quality and

Hydrogeochemistry of Toungo Area, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria. American Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 3(3), 63-73.

Lachassagne, P., Dewandel, B., & Wyns, R. (2021). Review: Hydrogeology of weathered crystalline / hard-rock aquifers-guidelines for the operational survey and management of their groundwater resources. Hydrogeology Journal, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-021-02339-7

Messene, G. M. (2017). Groundwater Flow Direction, Recharge and Discharge Zones Identification in Lower Gidabo Catchment, Rift Valley Basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 7(2), 32-39.

Nowbuth, M. D., Rambhojun, P., & Umrikar, B. (2012). Numerical Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Modelling of the Southern Aquifer, Mauritius. Earth Science India, 5(3), 79-91.

Oborie, E., & Nwankwoala, H. O. (2017). Determination of Groundwater Flow Direction in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Achievements, 2(9), 23-27.

Olorunfemi, M. O., Ojo, J. S., & Akintunde, O. M. (1999). Hydrogeophysical Evaluation of the Groundwater Potential of Akure Metropolis, South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 35(2), 207-228.

Oseji, J. O., Ujuanbi, O., & Merrious, O. (2009). Determination of Ground Water Flow Direction in Ndokwa Land Area of Delta State Nigeria, using Combined Drilled Hole and Global Positioning System. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 10(2), 649-656.

Oyedele, A. A. (2019). Use of remote sensing and GIS techniques for groundwater exploration in the basement complex terrain of Ado Ekiti, SW Nigeria. Springer Applied Water Science, p. 9:51 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-0917-9.

Oyedele, E. A. A. (2009). Physico-Chemical Status of Water Samples from Hand-Dug Wells in Ajebamidele Area of Ado-Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 3(5), 957-966.

Oyedele, A. A., Ayodele, O. S., & Olabode, O. F. (2019). Groundwater quality assessment and characterization of shallow basement aquifers in parts of ado ekiti metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. SN Applied Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-0683-1

Pande, C. B., Moharir, K. N., Singh, S. K., Elbeltagi, A., Pham, Q. B., Panneerselvam, B., Varade, A. M., & Kouadri, S. (2022). Groundwater flow modeling in the basaltic hard rock area of Maharashtra, India. Applied Water Science, 12:12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-021-01525-y

Popoola, K., Talabi, A. O., Afolagboye, L. O., Oyedele, A. A., & Ojo, A. A. (2020). Groundwater potential evaluation in the basement complex terrain of Ekiti East Local Government Area, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-019-00053-5 Springer

Singh, P., Thakur, J. K., & Kumar, S. (2013). Delineating groundwater potential zones in a hard rock terrain using geospatial tools. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58(1), 213-223.

Šrajbek, M., Kranjcˇevic´, L., Kovacˇ, I., & Biondic´, R. (2022). Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Sources Assessment for Contaminated Wellfield. Water, 14, 255. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14020255

Taiwo, A. M., Adeogun, A. O., Olatunde, K. A., & Adegbite, K. I. (2011). Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Hand-Dug Wells in Peri-Urban Area of Obantoko, Abeokuta, Nigeria for Selected Physico-Chemical Parameters. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 12(1), 527-534.

Talabi, A. O. (2016). Hydrochemistry and Sanitary Risk Assessment of Domestic Hand-Dug Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, 4(1), 1-11.

Talabi, A. O., & Kayode, T. J. (2019). Groundwater Pollution and Remediation. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2019.111001

Tinuola, F. R., & Owolabi, J. T. (2007). Issues in Environmental Pollution in Ekiti State. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(5), 544-547.

World Health Organization, Safe water and Global Health. (2008). Retrieved from www.who/int/features/qa/70/en/index.htm.

Zahra, F. S., & Putranto, T. T. (2021). The Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability towards Contamination using the DRASTIC and NV Indexes in Banjarbaru City, South Borneo, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Geography 53(3), 360-372. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/ijg.66716



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.56539

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 512 | views : 294

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2023 A. Akinola Oyedele, Gbenga Olayanju, Taiwo Oyedele, Kehinde Oyedele, Taofeek Ewumi, Funmi Ogunlana

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)

Web
Analytics IJG STATISTIC