Migration, Landscape Dynamics, and Fishermen Livelihood: A Case Study At East Kalimantan


Setiadi Setiadi(1*)

(1) Department of Anthropology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


This paper argues for the interrelationship between migration process, dynamics of landscape structure, and sustainable livelihood based on an in-depth study in East Kalimantan, known as a hub of oil and gas and mining industry as well as plantation and housing area for fishing communities. Using anthropological approach, data was collected using a range of methods including observation, GIS-based spatial mapping, household survey, focus group discussion (FGD), and in-depth interviews.Findings of this study showed that the long process of landscape change has affected community livelihood due to differential resource allocation. Intensive migration occurring alongside rapid industrialization has not only increased competition between different interest groups, but has also changed local spatial configuration. Nonetheless, findings also highlighted integration between differentinterest groups which has also influenced livelihood. Such process is a form of ‘smart’ response in showing community resilience and ability to share living space by minimizing conflicts.



mobility; landscape dynamics; livelihood; fishermen

Full Text:



Aburto, J., Thiel, M., & Stotz, W. (2009). Allocation of effort in artisanal fisheries: The importance of migration and temporary fishing camps. Ocean and Coastal Management, 52(12), 646–654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.10.004

Adebayo, H. O., Otun, W. O., & Daniel, I. S. (2019). Change detection in landuse/ landcover of abeokuta metropolitan area, Nigeria using multi-temporal Landsat remote sensing. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 51(2), 217–223. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.35690

Aghaei, P., Tavakolinia, J., Kalantari, M., & Fanni, Z. (2020). Production and Reproduction of Space in the Second Cycle of Capital Accumulation; A Critique of Everyday Life in Lived Space *. Bagh-3 Nazar, 16(80), 33–48. https://doi.org/10.22034/bagh.2019.151034.3799

Almalki, S. (2016). Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research—Challenges and Benefits. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(3), 288–295. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v5n3p288

Batterbury, S. (2001). Landscapes of Diversity: A Local Political Ecology of Livelihood Diversification in South-Western Niger. Cultural Geographies, 8(4), 437–464. https://doi.org/10.1177/096746080100800404

Bebbington, A., Humphreys Bebbington, D., Bury, J., Lingan, J., Muñoz, J. P., & Scurrah, M. (2008). Mining and Social Movements: Struggles Over Livelihood and Rural Territorial Development in the Andes. World Development, 36(12), 2888–2905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.11.016

Bebbington, A. J., & Bury, J. T. (2009). Institutional challenges for mining and sustainability in Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(41), 17296–17301. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0906057106

Camila, T. R., & Saraswati, R. (2020). Vulnerability of the East Coast of Balikpapan City in East Kalimantan (Lamaru Beach - Klandasan Beach). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 448(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/448/1/012128

Cihanger, D. (2018). Spaces by people: An urban design approach to everyday life. Metu Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 35(2), 55–76. https://doi.org/10.4305/METU.JFA.2018.2.2

Côté, I. (2014). Internal migration and the politics of place: A comparative analysis of China and Indonesia. Asian Ethnicity, 15(1), 111–129. https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2013.830365

Devenin, V., & Bianchi, C. (2019). Characterizing a mining space: Analysis from case studies in Chile and Australia. Resources Policy, 63(September 2018), 101402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2019.101402

Dharmawan, Arya, Hadi and Nissa, Z. N. A. (2020). Kerentanan dan Kelentingan Nafkah Rumahtangga Pedesaan : Sebuah Tipologi yang ditarik dari Studi Kasus Petani dan Nelayan Skala Kecil di Indonesia. Sodality, 08(01), 1–13.

Effendi & Manning. (2018). Kata kunci: Jurnal Pemikiran Sosiologi, 5(1), 1–20.

Ellis, F., & Allison, E. (2004). Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development Sub-programme Livelihood diversification and natural resource access Livelihood Support Programme (LSP) An inter-departmental programme for improving support.

Elmhirst, R., Siscawati, M., Basnett, B. S., & Ekowati, D. (2017). Gender and generation in engagements with oil palm in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: insights from feminist political ecology. Journal of Peasant Studies, 44(6), 1137–1159. https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2017.1337002

Etzold, B. (2014). Case of Dhaka ’ s Street Food Vendors. POPULATION, SPACE AND PLACE, 184(October 2014), 170–184.

Farmaki, A., Christou, P., & Saveriades, A. (2020). A Lefebvrian analysis of Airbnb space. Annals of Tourism Research, 80(April 2019), 102806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102806

Fernandez, I. G. (2011). The Right to the City as a Conceptual Framework to Study the Imapct of North-South Migration. Recreation and Society in Africa Asia and Latin Amerika (RASAALA), 11(2), 10–14. https://doi.org/10.16194/j.cnki.31-1059/g4.2011.07.016

Fleming, D. A., & Measham, T. G. (2015). Income Inequality across Australian Regions during the Mining Boom: 2001–11. Australian Geographer, 46(2), 203–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049182.2015.1020596

Hawkins, M. (2000). Becoming Banjar: Identity and ethnicity in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 1(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/14442210010001705830

Hillmann, F., Okine, R. K., & Borri, G. (2020). “Because migration begins from the villages”: environmental change within the

narrations of the Ewe diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 43(16), 39–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1667002

Horsley, J., Prout, S., Tonts, M., & Ali, S. H. (2015). Sustainable livelihoods and indicators for regional development in mining economies. Extractive Industries and Society, 2(2), 368–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2014.12.001

Kelley, L. C., Peluso, N. L., Carlson, K. M., & Afiff, S. (2020). Circular labor migration and land-livelihood dynamics in Southeast Asia’s concession landscapes. Journal of Rural Studies, 73(April 2019), 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.11.019

Kelly, P. F. (2011). Migration, agrarian transition, and rural change in Southeast Asia: Introduction. Critical Asian Studies, 43(4), 479–506. https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2011.623516

Lahiri-Dutt, K. (2011). Gendering the Field : Towards Sustainable Livelihoods for Mining Communities. In Gendering the Field : Towards Sustainable Livelihoods for Mining Communities. https://doi.org/10.26530/oapen_459251

Lin, S., & Gaubatz, P. (2015). New Wenzhou: Migration, metropolitan spatial development and modernity in a third-tier Chinese model city. Habitat International, 50, 214–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.08.040

Loftus, A. (2020). Political ecology II: Whither the state? Progress in Human Geography, 44(1), 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132518803421

Lu, J., & Lora-Wainwright, A. (2014). Historicizing sustainable livelihoods: A pathways approach to lead mining in rural central China. World Development, 62, 189–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.05.006

Mallick, B. (2019). The Nexus between Socio-Ecological System, Livelihood Resilience, and Migration Decisions: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh. Sustainability, 11(12), 3332. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123332

Martínez-Conde, C. Á., Boteman, C. E. R., Leal, K. F., & Montenegro, M. (2020). Memories of the struggles for the rights of immigrant women in Barcelona. Critical Social Policy, (08193), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261018319895499

Nguyen, M. T. N., & Locke, C. (2014). Rural-urban migration in Vietnam and China: gendered householding, production of space and the state. Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(5), 855–876. https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2014.925884

Ofosu, G., Dittmann, A., Sarpong, D., & Botchie, D. (2020). Socio-economic and environmental implications of Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) on agriculture and livelihoods. Environmental Science and Policy, 106(April 2019), 210–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2020.02.005

Parella, S., & Petroff, A. (2019). Return Intentions of Bolivian Migrants During the Spanish Economic Crisis: the Interplay of Macro-Meso and Micro Factors. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 20(1), 291–305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-018-0607-8

Peluso, N. L. (1992). The Political Ecology of Extraction and Extractive Reserves in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Development and Change, 23(4), 49–74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1992.tb00469.x

Persoon, G. A., & Simarmata, R. (2014). Undoing “marginality”: The islands of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan (Indonesia). Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 3(2), 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imic.2014.11.002

Putri, Ratih Fitria, Sumantyo, Josphat Tetuko Sri, Sukamdi, Harini, R. (2019). The Effect of Baseline Component Correlation on the Design of GNSS Network Configuration for Sermo Reservoir Defor. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 51(3), 364–384.

Radović, S. (2016). Poimanje fizičkog prostora u društvenoj teoriji: Mogućnosti sociološke analize prostorne dimenzije grada. Sociologija, 58(1), 146–164. https://doi.org/10.2298/SOC1601146R

Rees, P., Bell, M., Kupiszewski, M., Kupiszewska, D., Ueffing, P., Bernard, A., … Stillwell, J. (2017). The Impact of Internal Migration on Population Redistribution: an International Comparison. Population, Space and Place, 23(6). https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2036

Rizqyani, Rahma dan Marsoyo, A. (2020). Proses Akulturasi Keruangan Komunitas Muslim Kampung Jawa di Perkotaan Tabanan Bali. Junral Litbang Sukowati, 3(2), 1–14.

Rouse, R. (1991). Mexican Migration and the Social Space of Postmodernism. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 1(1), 8–23. https://doi.org/10.1353/dsp.1991.0011

Setiadi, Yuliono, Agus, & Satiti, S. (2017). Social-Economic Immobility: A Study of Fishermen’s Struggle among Corporation Powers in the East Coast of Kalimantan, Indonesia. Jurnal Humaniora, 29(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.v29i1.22562

Svarstad, H., & Benjaminsen, T. A. (2020). Reading radical environmental justice through a political ecology lens. Geoforum, 108(March 2019), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.11.007

Tiernan, A., & O’Connor, P. (2020). Perspectives on power over and power to: how women experience power in a mining community in Zimbabwe. Journal of Political Power, 00(00), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/2158379X.2020.1720089

Timmer, J. (2010). Being seen like the state: Emulations of legal culture in customary labor and land tenure arrangements in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. American Ethnologist, 37(4), 703–712. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01279.x

Tran, T. A. (2020). From free to forced adaptation: A political ecology of the ‘state-society-flood’ nexus in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 61(1), 162–182. https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12241

Vayda, P and Sahur, A. (1985). Forest Clearing and Pepper Farming by Bugis Migrants in East Kalimantan : Antecedents and Impact. Indonesia, 39(April), 93–110.

Wajdi, N., Adioetomo, S. M., & Mulder, C. H. (2017). Gravity models of interregional migration in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 53(3), 309–332. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2017.1298719

Wajdi, N., Mulder, C. H., & Adioetomo, S. M. (2017). Inter-regional migration in Indonesia: a micro approach. Journal of Population Research, 34(3), 253–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12546-017-9191-6

Wegenast, T., & Beck, J. (2020). Mining, rural livelihoods and food security: A disaggregated analysis of sub- saharan Africa. World Development, 130(June), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.104921

Zhang, L. (2014). “Migration and privatization of space and power in late socialist China”: American ethnologist (2001). Cities of the Global South Reader, 28(1), 88–91.


DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.54700

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 65 | views : 17


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Setiadi Setiadi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol 50 No 1 the Year 2018 - Vol 54 No 2 the Year 2022

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)