Sandbar Formation in the Mesjid River Estuary, Rupat Strait, Riau Province, Indonesia

Rifardi Rifardi(1*), Yeeri Badrun(2)

(1) Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Riau University
(2) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathemathic and Natural Scienc-es, Muhammadyah University, Pekanbaru, Riau
(*) Corresponding Author


At the aim to clarify the relationship between the sandbar  formation and lithogeneous sediment discharges, the sedimentological aspects of the Mesjid River Estuary are revealed by various analysis. The samples of bottom surface sediments and the suspended sediment were collected at 50 stations in the estuary using grab and van dorm samplers. Oceanographic observation were also carried out  at the stations. The Mesjid River Estuary receives lithogeneous sediments mainly from the Mesjid River’s drainage areas which play important role on the formation of sandbar which is shown by  a belt-like area (0.5-1.0 m depth) in the area off the river mouth. The sandbar might become a sandbank in 20 to 40 years later. High suspended sediment up to 354.61 mg/l indicates the river mouth receives lithogeneous sediments. Total of 926  ton/day of the sediments supplied by the river are deposited 0.024 m/year into the area.


bottom surface sediment; suspended sedimentation; sediment discharge; sedimentation rates; bottom character

Full Text:



Alkhatib M., T. C. Jennerjahn and S. Joko (2007), Biogeochemistry of the Dumai River estuary, Sumatra, Indonesia, a tropical black-water river, Limnology and Oceanography, 52, doi: 10.4319/lo.2007.52.6.2410. Amin, B., A. Ismail, A, Arshad, C. K. Yap and M.S. Kamarudin (2007), Distribution and speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu and Ni) in coastal sediments of Dumai Sumatera, Indonesia, Coastal Development, 10(2), 97-113. Amin, B., A. Ismail, A, Arshad, C. K. Yap and M.S. Kamarudin (2008), Anthropogenic impacts on heavy metal concentrations in the coastal sediments of Dumai, Indonesia, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 148(1), 291-305, doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0159-z. Amin, B., A. Ismail, A, Arshad, C. K. Yap and M.S. Kamarudin (2009), Gastropod assemblages as indicators of sediment metal contamination in mangroves of Dumai, Sumatra, Indonesia, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 201, 9-18. Badrun, Y. (2008), Analisis kualitas perairan Selat Rupat sekitar aktivitas industri minyak bumi Kota Dumai, Jurnal Environmental Science, 1(2):17-25. Cho, A., D. Cheong, J. C. Kim, S. Shin, Y. H. Park and K. Katshuki (2016), Delta formation in Nakdong River, Korea, during the holocene as inferred from the diatom assemblage, Coastal Reseach, 33(1): 67-77. Gebert, J., B. Conlin, J. Cushing, S. Douglas and G.Westfall (2013), Sediment Quantity And Dynamics. Delaware Estuary Regional Sediment Management Plan (White Paper), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Jersey Department of Transportation, U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Waikato Regional Council. Gellis, A. C., C. R. Hupp, J. M. Landwehr and M. J. Pavich, (2007), Sources and transport of sediment in the wransport of sediment in the watershed, p. 28, Synthesis of U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem and Implications for Environmental Management. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. Gibbs, M. And D. Bremner (2008), Wharekawa Estuary Sediment Sources, Environment Waikato Technical Report 2008/07, 36 p., Environment Waikato, Hamilton East. Kirby, R. and W. R. Parker (1982), A suspended sediment front in the Severn Estuary, Nature, 295, 396-399. Koiter, A. J., P. N. Owens, E. L. Petticrew and D.A. Lobb (2013), The behavioural characteristics of sediment properties and their implications for sediment fingerprinting as an approach for identifying sediment sources in river basins, Earth-Science Reviews 125, 24–42. Martin, J. M., J. Zhang, M. C. Shi, and Q. Zhou (1993), Actual flux of the Huanghe ( Yellow River) sediment to the western Pacific Ocean, Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 31(3), 243-254. Merian, R. D., Mubarak and S. Sutikno (2016), Analisis kualitas perairan muara Sungai Dumai ditinjau dari sspek fisika, kimia dan biologi, Dinamika Lingkungan Indonesia, 3(2):107-112. Musrifin (2011), Mapping of Depth and Tidal Current System in Mesjid River Estuary, Dumai City, Berkala Perikanan Terubuk, 39(1), 44-50. Nedi, S., B. Pramudya, E. Riani and Manuwoto (2010), Environmental characteristics of Rupat Strait, Environmental Science, 1(4), 25-35. Oyedotun, T. D. T. (2016), Sediment characterisation in an estuary-beach system, J. Coast Zone Manag, 19: 433, doi: 10.4172/2473-3350.1000433. Potter, I .C., B. M. Chuwen, S. D. Hoeksema and M. Elliott (2010), The concept of an estuary: A definition that incorporates systems which can become closed to the ocean and hypersaline, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 87(3), 497-500. Purba, N. P. and A.M.A. Khan (2010), Physical and chemical characteristics of Dumai Coastal Waters, Akuatika, 1(1), 69-83. Putra, R. M., Rifardi and Elizal (2017), Kapasitas asimilasi total suspended solid (TSS) di muara Sungai Nerbit besar Kelurahan Lubuk Gaung Kecamatan Sembilan Kota Dumai Provinsi Riau, Terubuk, 45(1), In press. Retnowati, A., M. A. Marfai and J. T. S. Sumantyo (2012), Rip currents signatures zone detection on Alos Palsar Image at Parangtritis beach, Indonesia, Indonesian Journal of Geography, 43(2), 12-27. Rifardi, K. Oki and T. Tomiyasu (1998), Sedimentary environments based on textures surface sediments and sedimentation rates in the South Yatsushiro Kai (Sea), Southwest Kyushu, Japan, Sedimentology Sociaty Japan, 48, 67-84. Rifardi (2001), Study on sedimentology from the Mesjid River Estuary and its Environs in the Rupat Strait, the East Coast of Sumatera Island, Coastal Development, 4(2), 87-97. Rifardi (2008), Analisis ekologi foraminifera bentik pada permukaan sedimen perairan Muara Sungai Mesjid dan Selat Rupat pantai timur Sumatera, Ilmu Kelautan, 13(2), 95-102. Rifardi (2012), Ekologi sediment laut modern, 167 p, UR Press, Pekanbaru, Indonesia. Rifardi and Syahrul (2013), Analisis degradasi perairan Selat Rupat pantai timur Sumatera berdasarkan aspek sedimentasi sebagai dasar dalam perencanaan pembangunan dan pengelolaan wilayah pesisir Kota Dumai Provinsi Riau, 36 p., Laporan penelitian guru besar, Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru. Rifardi, Syahminan, Suwarni, R. B. Butar and N. Fidiatur (2015), Sedimentary environments of the Dumai Coastal Waters on the East Coast of Central Sumatera Island, Indonesia, ASM Science Journal, 9(2), 9-16. Rifardi (2015), Studi karakteristik sedimen estuaria Sungai Dumai dan estuaria Sungai Mesjid Selat Rupat, 71 p., Laporan penelitian guru besar, Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru. Sakamoto, W. (1982), Detritus-roles of suspended and bottom sediment on coastal marine ecosystem, Marine Sci. Monhtly, 14(8), 482-489. Syahminan, E. Riani, S. Anwar and Rifardi (2015), Heavy metals pollution status Pb and Cd in sediments in Dumai Sea western waters-Riau Province, Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan, 5(2), 133-140, doi: 10.19081/jpsl.5.2.133. Wang, A., H. Wang, N. Bi and X. Wu (2016). Sediment transport and dispersal pattern from the Bohai Sea to the Yellow Sea, Coastal Reaseach, 74, 104-116. Watanabe, Y and S. Sassa (2016), Sedimentation history of sanbars in flood-tidal delta evaluated by seismic method in Lake Tofutsu, Japan, Coastal Research, 32(6), 1389-1401. Wei, H., D. Hainbucher, T. Pohlmann, S. Feng and J.Suendermann (2004), Tidal induced Lagrangian and Eulerian mean circulation in the Bohai Sea, Marine Systems, 44(34), 141-151. Wöstmann, R. and G. Liebezeit (2012), Geochemical evidence for different peat sources in the Siak estuary and along the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, Mires and Peat, 10(2), 1–13, Xing, G., H. Wang, Z. Yang and N.Bi (2016), Spatial and temporal variation in erosion and accumulation of the subaqueous Yellow River Delta (1976-2004), Coastal Research, SI, 74, 32-47.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2730 | views : 2409


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Geography

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)