Spatial Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Hazard on Education Area (University of Indonesia

Adi Wibowo(1*), Khairulmaini Osman Salleh(2), Adi Wibowo(3),

(1) Department of Geography, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia
(2) Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya
(3) Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya
(*) Corresponding Author


As education area, campus or university is full with various activities which have an impact on the existence of land-use or land-cover. The variation of activities dynamically change the shape of land-use or land-cover within the campus area, thus also create variations in Land Surface Temperature (LST). The LST are impacting the coziness of human activity especially when reaches more than 30 oC. This study used the term Urban Heat Signature (UHS) to explain LST in different land-use or land-cover types. The objective of this study is to examine UHS as an Urban Heat Hazard (UHH) based on Universal Temperature Climate Index (UTCI) and Effective Temperature Index (ETI) in University of Indonesia. Thermal bands of Landsat 8 images (the acquisition year 2013-2015) were used to create LST model. A ground data known as Air Surface Temperature (AST) were used to validate the model. The result showed an increased level of maximum temperature during September-October since 2013 until 2014. The maximum temperature was reduced in October 2014, however it increased again in August 2015. The UTCI showed “moderate” and “strong heat stress”, while EFI showed “uncomfortable” and “very uncomfortable” categories during that period. This research concluded that build up area in UI Campus highest temperature on UI campus based on UHS. Range UHS in Campus UI on 2013 (21.8-31.1oC), 2014 (25.0-36.2oC) and 2015 (24.9-38.2oC). This maximum UHS on September (2014 and 2015) put on levelling UTCI included range temperature 32-35oC, with an explanation of sensation temperature is warm and sensation of comfort is Uncomfortable, Psychology with  Increasing Stress Case by Sweating and Blood Flow and Health category is Cardiovascular Embarrassment. This UHS occurs in September will give impact on psychology and health, that’s become the UHH of the living on education area.


Urban Heat Signature, Spatial Temporal Analysis, Urban Heat Hazard, Education Area

Full Text:



Ahmad S., and Hashim N.M., (2007), Effects of Soil Moisture on Urban Heat Island Occurrences: Case of Selangor, Malaysia. Humanity & Social Sciences Journal 2,132-138.

Asmat A., Mansor S., and Hong T.F., (2003), Rule Based Classification for Urban Heat Island Mapping. 2nd Fig Regional Conference Marrakech, Morocco, December 2-5

Boduch, M., and Fincher, W., (2009), University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture-Seminar in Sustainable Architecture, Meadows Seminar Fall 2009, Center for Sustainable Development

Chen, L., and  Edward Ng., (2012), Outdoor thermal comfort and outdoor activities: A review of research in the past decade. Cities, 29, 118-125. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2011.08.006

Chen, X., Li, P., Yin, Z., and Zhao, H., (2005), Remote Sensing Image-Based Analysis of The Relationship Between Urban Heat Island and Land Use/Land Cover Changes, Remote Sensing of Environment.

Gartland, L., (2008), Heat Island: Understanding and Mitigating a Heat in Urban Areas, Earthscan

Hernina, R, Hanafiah, I., and Wikantika, K., (2008), Urban Heat Island Analysis Use Satellite Data (Case Study Bekasia Areas, West Java), Geography Journal, 1(2) 73-80.

Ichinose, T., Matsumoto, F., and Kataoka, K., (2008), Urban thermal environment and its mitigation through urban planning process. Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University, 43, 33-40.

Kim Y.H., and Baik, J.J., (2005), Spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island in Seoul. Journal American Meteorological Society, 44, 591-605

Karyono, H.T., (2001), Teori dan Acuan Kenyamanan Termis dalam Arsitektur, PT. Catur Libra Optima, Jakarta.

Kuşcu C., and Şengezer B., (2011), Determination of Heat Islands from Landsat Tm Data: Relationship between Surface Temp and Urbanization Factors in Istanbul. The GEOSS Era: Towards Operational Environmental Monitoring:  International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment.

Lenzholzer S., and Brown R.D., (2013), Climate-responsive landscape architecture design education. Journal of Cleaner Production 61, 89-99.

Makaremi N., Elias Salleh, Mohammad Zaky Jaafar, and Amir H. G. H., (2012), Thermal comfort conditions of shaded outdoor spaces in hot and humid climate of Malaysia, Building and Environment, 48, 7-14.

Mallick, J., Kant Y., and Bharath B. D., (2008). Estimation of land surface temp over Delhi using Landsat 7 ETM+, Journal of Indian Geophysics Union, 12(3), 131-140

Mirzaei, P.A. and Haghighat, F., (2010), Approach to study urban heat island: abilities and limitation, Journal of Building and Environment, 45, 2192-2201

Memon, R.A, Dennis, Y.C. Leung and Chun-Ho Liu, (2009), An investigation of urban heat island intensity (UHII) as an indicator of urban heating, Journal of Atmospheric Research, 94(3), 491-500

Oke, T.R., (2004), Siting and exposure of meteorological instruments at urban sites. 27th NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application, Banff, 25-29 October, 2004. To be published by Kluwer.

Qin, Z., Wang, F., Karnieli, A., Song, C., Tu, L., and Zhao, S., (2015), An Improved Monowindow Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data, Remote Sensing, 7(4), 4269-4289

Rena, C., Spit, T., Lenzholzer, S., Yim, H. L. S., Heusinkveld, B., van Hove, B., Chen, L., Kupski, S., Burghardt, R. and Katzschner, L, (2012), Urban climate map system for Dutch spatial planning, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 18, 207-221.

Rozenstein O., Zhihao Qin, Yevgeny Derimian and Arnon Karnieli,  (2014), Derivation of Land Surface Temp for Landsat-8 TIRS Using a Split Window Algorithm, Sensors, 14, 5768-5780; doi:10.3390/s140405768

Saadatian, O, Kamaruzaman, B.S, and Elias S., (2013), Adaptation of sustainability community indicators for Malaysian campuses as small cities, Journal Sustainable Cities and Society, 6, 40–50.

Setiono, (1991), Arsitektur Kemapanan, Pendidikan, Kenyamanan, dan Penghematan Energi, PT. Catur Libra Optima, Jakarta.

Shahidan, M.F., Phillip J. Jones, Julie Gwilliam, and Elias Salleh, (2012), An evaluation of outdoor and building environment cooling achieved through combination modification of trees with ground materials, Building and Environment, 58, 245-257.

Sookuk, P., Stanton E. T., & Myunghee, J., (2014), Application of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) For microclimatic analysis in urban thermal environments, Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 146–155.

Srivanit, M. & Hakao, K., (2013), Evaluating the cooling effects of greening for improving the outdoor thermal environment at an institutional campus in the summer, Building and Environment, 66, 158-172.

Steeneveld GJ, S. Koopmans BG, Heusinkveld NE, and Theeuwes, (2014), Refreshing the role of open water surfaces on mitigating the maximum urban heat island effect. Landscape and Urban Planning 121, 92–96. http://doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.09.001

Suwarta, N. and Sari, R. F., (2013), Evaluating UI Green Metric as a tool to support green universities development: assessment of the year 2011 ranking. Journal of Cleaner Production, 61, 46-53. http;//doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.02.034

Suzuki, C., (2008), Improvements of Heat Island Monitoring Network in Tokyo. Geography Reports of Tokyo University, 43, 33-40.

Taha, Haider., (1997), Urban Climates and Heat Islands: Albedo, Evapotranspiration, and Anthropogenic Heat. Energy and Buildings, 25, (2), 99-103

Tran, H., Daisuke, U., Shiro, O., and Yoshifumi, Y., (2006), Assessment with satellite data of the urban heat island effects in Asian mega cities. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, 8 (1), 34-48

Tursilowati, L., (2008), Urban Heat Island and their contribution on climate change and relationship with land use change. Proceeding National Seminar on Global Warming and Global Change: Fact, Mitigation and Adaptation. ISBN : 978-979-17490-0-8.

Tursilowati, L., Sumantyo, J.T.S., Hiroaki, K., & Adiningsih, E.R., (2012), Relationship between urban heat island phenomenon and land use/land cover changes in Jakarta, Indonesia. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(4), 645-653

Weng Q., Fu p., and Gao F., (2014), Generating daily land surface temperature at Landsat resolution by fusing Landsat and MODIS data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 55-67

Wibowo, A., Rustanto, A., & Shidiq, I.P.A., (2013), Spatial-temporal analysis of urban heat island in tangerang city. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 45 (2), 101-112.

Wong, N.H. and Chen Y., (2005), Study of green areas and urban heat island in a tropical city. Journal of Habitat International, 29, 547-558.

Wong, N.H., Jusuf, S.K, Win A.A.L., Thu, H.K., Syatia, T., and Xuchou, W., (2007), Environmental study of the impact of greenery in an institutional campus in the tropics,  Journal of Building and Environment, 42, 2449-2970.

Wong, N.H., and Jusuf, S.K., (2008), GIS-based greenery evaluation on campus master plan, Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 84, pp. 166-182

Wang, S., Ding, H., Liang, H., and Ma, Q., (2016), Detection of Urban Expansion and Land Surface Temperature Change Using Multi Temporal Landsat Image, Conservation and Recycling.

Yuan-Fong Su, Giles M. Foody, and Ke-Sheng Cheng, (2012), Spatial non-stationarity in the relationships between land cover and surface temperature in an urban heat island and its impacts on thermally sensitive populations. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(2), 172-180. http://doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.016


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 403 | views : 138


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indonesian Journal of Geography Indexed by:

Image result for logo proquestISJD Indonesian Publication Index  Indonesia One SearchSINTACROSSREF

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 12/M/Kp/II/2015, Dated 11 February 2015.

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)

2016 © Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada

All right reserved. Use of this website signifies your agreement to the Terms of Use.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.