Influence of Bacterial Endotoxin on Mucosal Immune Response to Phosphorylcholine

Sapta Adisuka Mulyatno(1), Kosuke Kataoka(2), Makoto Fukui(3), Tselmeg Baatarjav Rita Cristina Orihuela Campos(4), Hiro-O Ito(5*)

(1) Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima
(2) Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima
(3) Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima
(4) Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima
(5) Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima
(*) Corresponding Author


Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
that initiates inflammation by activation innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor 4
(TLR4). However, the influence of LPS on the mucosal immune reactions remains to be addressed.
This study was examined the effect of LPS in nasal vaccination model. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice
were nasally immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugated with hapten phosphorylcholine (PC) or trinitrophenol (TNP) with LPS as a mucosal adjuvant, in the presence or
absence of cholera toxin (CT). The antibody titers were measured in serum, saliva, and nasal wash
fluids by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in IgM, IgG, and IgA isotype-specific
manner. The epitope-specific antibody production induced in blood and mucosal fluid was further
enhanced by LPS for all isotypes examined. Besides, LPS, which has rarely been regarded as a mucosal adjuvant, was tested for its adjuvanticity by comparing the nasal immunization with PC-KLH plus LPS or with PC-KLH plus CT. LPS showed high adjuvanticity almost equal to CT. Possible differences of LPS from CT as a mucosal adjuvant remains to be elucidated.

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