Mapping Indonesia’s South-South Triangular Cooperation Initiatives & potential: Climate Adaptation and Mitigation

https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.91042

Wulan Kencana Adjani(1*)

(1) Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency (KOTRA)
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Indonesia has committed to the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP), and one of the commitments includes its efforts to enhance South-South Cooperation (SSC). Within those SSC sectors, one of the most promising sectors are the Climate change aspects such as Agriculture, disaster risk reduction, renewable energy and energy efficiency, forestry, transport, water resources, and waste management. Notably, countries' recognition is growing to utilize SSC as a strategic tool in addressing climate change and achieving their National Development Contributions (NDC). This paper employs qualitative research methods, drawing insights from existing literature and data, to analyse Indonesia's SSC efforts as part of its AOIP commitment. The study sheds light on Indonesia's endeavours to provide SSC within the Indo-Pacific region, considering the political, economic, and strategic benefits of assisting countries in this area. Additionally, it underscores the significance of technological exchange, particularly with countries sharing similar geo-climatic, cultural, and socio-economic conditions, in fostering effective cooperation, particularly within the Climate Change agenda. The study proposes a potential framework for cooperation by aligning each host country's specific needs with an analysis of their NDCs, complemented by the expertise of contributing nations.


Keywords


South-south Cooperation; ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific; Climate Change; NDC Implementation

Full Text:

PDF


References

Books

Joseph Nye (2004). Soft Power – The Means to Success in The World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.

Book Chapters

Tana Johnson & Andrew Heiss (2018). Liberal Institutionalism. In Thomas G. Weiss & Rorden Wilkinson (Eds.), International Organization and Global Governance (2nd ed., pp. 132). London: Routledge.

Journal Article (retrieved online, without DOI or page numbers)

Rahmadani, S. (2022). Diplomasi Indonesia di Kawasan Pasifik Selatan pada masa pemerintahan Joko Widodo 2015-2019. Jom FISIP, 9(5), 15. Retrieved from: https://jom.unri.ac.id/index.php/JOMFSIP/article/view/32577

Audiovisual media (videos, music recordings, podcasts, etc.)

Faizasyah, T. (2021, July 6). Webinar Nasional: Penguatan Peran Indonesia dalam Kerja Sama Selatan-Selatan: Kerja sama Indonesia-selatan sebagai piranti diplomasi ndonesia. Director General of Information and Public Diplomacy, Departemen Hubungan Internasional FISIP UI. YouTube. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um_Whpweh3o

Nugraha, L. (2021, July 6) Webinar Nasional: Penguatan Peran Indonesia dalam Kerja Sama Selatan-Selatan: Indonesia dalam kerjasama selatan-selatan. Center for the Study of Multilateral Policy Implementation, Agency for Foreign Affairs Research and Development (BPPK). Departemen Hubungan Internasional FISIP UI. YouTube. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um_Whpweh3o

Rahmanto, R. B. (2021, July 6). Webinar Nasional: Penguatan Peran Indonesia dalam Kerja Sama Selatan-Selatan: opening remarks. Head of Center for Policy Analysis and Development for Multilateral Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia. Departemen Hubungan Internasional FISIP UI. YouTube. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um_Whpweh3o

Electronic source

ASEAN. (2019). ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific. Retrieved from https://asean.org/asean2020/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/ASEAN-Outlook-on-the-Indo-Pacific_FINAL_22062019.pdf

ASEAN Briefing. (2023, October 19). Indonesia Market for Electric Vehicles: Sales and Production Investments. ASEAN Business News. Retrieved from https://www.aseanbriefing.com/news/indonesia-market-prospects-for-electric-vehicles-sales-manufacturing-investments/

BAPPENAS (2020) Lampiran Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia No.18: Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2020-2024 https://perpustakaan.bappenas.go.id/elibrary/file_upload/koleksi/migrasi-data-publikasi/file/RP_RKP/Dokumen%20RPJMN%202020-2024/Lampiran%201.%20Narasi%20RPJMN%202020-2024.pdf

Bower Group Asia (2023, November 28). State of Indo-Pacific Nations Ahead of Climate Summit – BowerGroupAsia. BowerGroupAsia. Retrieved from https://bowergroupasia.com/state-of-indo-pacific-nations-ahead-of-climate-summit/#:~:text=The%20Pacific%20Islands%20have%20seen,five%20are%20in%20the%20Pacific.&text=Rising%20sea%20levels%20threaten%20the,in%20low%2Dlying%20coastal%20areas

CPDE Working Group on South-South Cooperation c/o Reality of Aid (2019). A Human Rights-Based Approach to South-South Development Cooperation: Proposed Framework. Retrieved from https://www.realityofaid.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Towards-Measuring-South-South-Development-Cooperation-Nov2019-final-copy-for-web-upload.pdf

Cyrill, M. (2023). Indonesia Market Prospects for Sales and Manufacturing. ASEAN Briefing. Retrieved from https://www.aseanbriefing.com/news/indonesia-market-prospects-for-electric-vehicles-sales-manufacturing-investments/

Darmawan, A. (2022). Why Indonesia’s engagement with Pacific countries matters. Lowy Institute. Retrieved from https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/why-indonesia-s-engagement-pacific-countries-matters

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) (2021). Evaluating South-South cooperation in six Latin American and Caribbean countries: shared challenges for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (LC/TS.2021/121). Santiago: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/373771119_Evaluating_South-South_cooperation_in_six_Latin_American_and_Caribbean_countries_shared_challenges_for_implementation_of_the_2030_Agenda_for_Sustainable_Development

Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik. Universitas Indonesia. (2021). Kerjasama Selatan-Selatan Merupakan Skema Kerjasama Antar Negara Berkembang. (2021). Retrieved from https://fisip.ui.ac.id/penguatan-peran-indonesia-dalam-kerja-sama-selatan-selatan/

Foreign Policy Strategy Agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affaors of the Republic of Indonesia. (2022). Perjalanan satu dekada KSS Indonesia: Kontribusi bagi tercapainya Pembangunan berkelanjutan. Retrieved from https://kemlu.go.id/download/L3NpdGVzL3B1c2F0L0RvY3VtZW50cy9LYWppYW4lMjBCUFBLL1AzSyUyME9JLU1VTFRJTEFURVJBTC8zNS4lMjBQZXJqYWxhbmFuJTIwU2F0dSUyMERla2FkZSUyMEtTUyUyMEluZG9uZXNpYS5wZGY=

Government of Canada. (2022). Canada’s Indo-Pacific Strategy. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/transparency-transparence/assets/pdfs/indo-pacific-indo-pacifique/indo-pacific-indo-pacifique-en.pdf

Indonesia Green Growth Program. (2021).Indonesia’s Updated NDC for a Climate Resilient Future. Retrieved from http://greengrowth.bappenas.go.id/en/indonesias-updated-ndc-for-a-climate-resilient-future/

Indonesia – Climate Change Performance Ranking 2023. (2022, November 16). Climate Change Performance Index. Retrieved from https://ccpi.org/country/idn/

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) (2018). UNFCCC, UNOSSC Report Highlights Potential of South-South, Triangular Cooperation for Climate Technologies. News. SDG Knowledge Hub. IISD. Retrieved from https://sdg.iisd.org/news/unfccc-unossc-report-highlights-potential-of-south-south-triangular-cooperation-for-climate-technologies/

International Energy Agency. (2022). Enhancing Indonesia’s Power System: Pathways to meet the renewables targets in 2025 and beyond. Retrieved from https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/247b5328-2cd7-4fbb-a800-dd1c71f6e562/EnhancingIndonesiasPowerSystem.pdf

International Military Council on Climate and Security, (2020). Climate and Security in The Indo-Asia Pacific: part of the” World Climate and Security Report 2020” briefer series. Retrieved from https://imccs.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Climate-Security-Indo-Asia-Pacific_2020_7.pdf

International Monetary Fund. (2022, March 23). Poor and Vulnerable Countries Need Support to Adapt to Climate Change. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/en/Blogs/Articles/2022/03/23/blog032322-poor-and-vulnerable-countris-need-support-to-adapt-to-climate-change

Lembaga Dana Kerja Sama Pembangunan International. (n.d.). Data Hibah Pemerintah Indonesia 2000-2019. Retrieved from https://ldkpi.kemenkeu.go.id/page/hibah-sebelum-era-ldkpi

Lembaga Dana Kerja Sama Pembangunan International. (n.d.). Penerima Hibah 2020-2022. Retrieved from https://ldkpi.kemenkeu.go.id/page/penerima-hibah

Maghfur, A. A. (2022, Oktober 8). Perkuat Kerja Sama di Kawasan Asia/Pasifik, BPPK & LDKPI Selenggarakan Lokakarya Passenger Assessment untuk Pegawai Administrasi Pabean Asia/Pasifik. Lembaga Dana Kerja Sama Pembangunan International. Retrieved from https://ldkpi.kemenkeu.go.id/post/perkuat-kerja-sama-di-kawasan-asiapasifik

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. (2019, April 7). Perubahan Iklim. Retrieved from https://kemlu.go.id/portal/id/read/96/halaman_list_lainnya/perubahan-iklim

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. (2022). Melanesian Spearhead Group. Retrieved from https://kemlu.go.id/portal/id/read/128/halaman_list_lainnya/melanesian-spearhead-group-msg

Moilwa, T. (2015). Realizing the Potential of Civil Society-led South-South Development Cooperation. IDS Policy Briefing 84. Brighton: IDS.

National Coordination Team of South-South Cooperation. (2014). Annual Report of Indonesia South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC). Retrieved from https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12315693.pdf

National Coordination Team of South-South Cooperation. (2016). Annual Report of Indonesia South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC). Retrieved from https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12315719.pdf

Pacific Community. (2021). Framework for Energy Security and Resilience in the Pacific (FESRIP) 2021-2030: Volume 1: The Framework. Retrieved from https://www.spc.int/resource-centre/publications/framework-for-energy-security-and-resilience-in-the-pacific-fesrip

PWC Indonesia. (2023). Boosting Indonesia’s Renewables Through Presidential

Regulation No. 112 of 2022. PWC Indonesia Legal Alert. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/id/en/publications/legal/legal-alert-2023-13.pdf

Regional Pacific NDC Hub. (2023). Pacific Ndcs. Retrieved from https://pacificndc.org/pacific-ndcs

Sofjan, D. (2022). Terminal Evaluation Report Partnership Initiative for Institutional Development of Indonesia’s South-South Triangular Cooperation (PIID-SSTC) (2021-2022). Retrieved from https://erc.undp.org/evaluation/documents/download/20137

South-South Cooperation in Asia and the Pacific – A brief overview. (2018). United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved from https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/SSC_Paper_v04_20180621_FINAL_formatted.pdf

The Reality of Aid. (2023, October 27). On South-South Cooperation: Assessing its political relevance and envisioning a future beyond technical cooperation. The reality of Aid. https://realityofaid.org/reality-check-ssc/

Triferna, P. (2022, October 24). Indonesia raises greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Antara News. Retrieved from https://en.antaranews.com/news/256497/indonesia-raises-greenhouse-gas-emission-reduction-target

Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (2021). Pilot Studies and Data Stories - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved from https://www.tossd.org/pilot-studies-data-stories/tossd-south-south-cooperation.html

United Nations. (2023) South-South Cooperation Is Essential to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/un-chronicle/south-south-cooperation-is-essential-achieving-sustainable-development-goals#:~:text=Through%20cooperative%20efforts%2C%20we%20can,and%20pursue%20sustainable%20energy%20alternatives.&text=The%20United%20Nations%20has%20played,climate%20change%20mitigation%20and%20adaptation

UN Secretary-General (2012) Framework of operational guidelines on United Nations support to South-South and triangular cooperation SSC/17/3. Note by the Secretary-General, High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation Seventeenth session. New York, May 2012. Retrieved from https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/726784?ln=en

UNDP. (n.d.). China-Ghana South-South Cooperation on Renewable Energy Technology Transfer. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/china/projects/china-ghana-south-south-cooperation-renewable-energy-technology-transfer

UNDP in China. (n.d.). UNDP Research Paper: More Money, More Impact? China’s Climate Change South-South Cooperation to Date and Future Trends. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/sites/g/files/zskgke326/files/migration/cn/UNDP-China_Research-Paper_CCSSC_revised_Final.pdf

UNDP Indonesia. (2015). UNDP Indonesia – Brief South-south and triangular cooperation in Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/indonesia/publications/south-south-and-triangular-cooperation-indonesia

UNFCCC. (2016). The first nationally determined contribution republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/ndcreg

UNFCCC. (2022). Republic of Indonesia Enhanced Nationally Determined Contribution. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-09/23.09.2022_Enhanced%20NDC%20Indonesia.pdf

UNFCC and UNOSSC (2018). The potential of South-South and triangular cooperation on climate technologies for advancing implementation of nationally determined contributions and national adaptation plans. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/ttclear/misc_/StaticFiles/gnwoerk_static/brief9/7a74a2f17f204b6ba17f1ec965da70d7/f4e361cd56d4463a8daa4ab29a1254db.pdf

United Nation. (2016, March 14). High-level Committee on South-South Cooperation: Framework of operational guidelines on United Nations support to South-South and triangular cooperation SSC/19/3 (March 14, 2016).

United Nations Executive Office of the Secretary-General and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (2017) Catalyzing the Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions in the Context of the 2030 Agenda through South-South Cooperation. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/files/resource_materials/application/pdf/ssc_ndc_report.pdf

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (2018). The potential of South-South and Triangular Cooperation on climate technologies for advancing implementation of nationally determined and national adaptation plan.

UNOSSC. (2023). South-South Cooperation Is Essential to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/un-chronicle/south-south-cooperation-is-essential-achieving-sustainable-development-goals#:~:text=Through%20cooperative%20efforts%2C%20we%20can,and%20pursue%20sustainable%20energy%20alternatives.&text=The%20United%20Nations%20has%20played,climate%20change%20mitigation%20and%20adaptation

USAID climate risk analysis for Pacific Island countries: Assessment report. (2023, July 12). PreventionWeb. Retrieved from https://www.preventionweb.net/publication/usaid-climate-risk-analysis-pacific-island-countries-assessment-report

Wangge, H. (2023, August 31). Indonesia’s Commitment to the Pacific Needs to Go Beyond Rhetoric. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplodarmawamat.com/2023/08/indonesias-commitment-to-the-pacific-needs-to-go-beyond-rhetoric/

Weigel, M. (2016). China’s Climate Change South-South Cooperation: Track Record and Future Direction. United Nations Development Programme in China, Beijing, China.

World Bank & Asian Development Bank. (2021). Climate risk country profile: Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/700411/climate-risk-country-profile-indonesia.pdf

World Wildlife Fund (WWF). (n.d). Climate adaptation and climate mitigation. Retrieved from https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/what-s-the-difference-between-climate-change-mitigation-and-adaptation#:~:text=Climate%20change%20adaptation%20means%20altering,we%20can%20no%20longer%20avoid.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.91042

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 783 | views : 313

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.