Whither Just Transition? A Case Study of Energy Transition Mechanism (ETM) Country Platform in Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.81111

Aldi Haydar Mulia(1*), Sekarini Wukirasih(2), Widhi Hanantyo Suryadinata(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Without a coordinated and effective global energy transition action plan, numerous projects and aid given by the Global North states dominated today's energy transition scheme–particularly for many Global South states. One is Energy Transition Mechanism (ETM), which claims to actualise just transition through its platform recently launched in Indonesia. It promises to improve societal participation, address socio-economic issues, and gives its recipients an affordable and sustainable path to a just transition. The latter focuses on early coal retirement, which is rampant in Indonesia. Despite its relatively novel focus on just transition, ETM fails to live up to its "just" concept, once again resembling debt-heavy funding and a lack of holistic assessment of the funding's effects on the affected society. This paper aims to elaborate on such problematisation while questioning how foreign funding could help realise just transition in the Global South. A qualitative case study provides context for the just transition in Indonesia.

Keywords: energy transition mechanism; just transition; Global North; Global South; Indonesia


Keywords


energy transition; energy transition mechanism; global north; global south; hegemonic knowledge

Full Text:

PDF


References

Books

Pattberg, P. H., Biermann, F., Chan, S., & Mert, A. (Eds.). (2012). Public-Private Partnerships for Sustainable Development: Emergence, Influence and Legitimacy. Edward Elgar.

Saldana, J. (2016). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.

Chapter in an Edited Book

Acosta, A. (2013). Extractivism and neoextractivism: two sides of the same curse. In M. Lang & D. Mokrani (Eds.), Beyond Development: Alternative Visions from Latin America (pp. 61–86). Transnational Institute.

Goldthau, A., Eicke, L., & Weko, S. (2020). The Global Energy Transition and the Global South. In M. Hefner & S. Tagliapetra (Eds.), The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition (pp. 319–339). Lecture Notes in Energy vol. 73. Springer.

Kumar, A., Pols, A., & Höffken, J. (2021). Urgency v justice: A politics of energy transition in the age of the Anthropocene. In A. Kumar, J. Höffken, & A. Pols (Eds.), Dilemmas of Energy Transitions in the Global South (pp. 1–17). Routledge.

Vennesson, P. (2008). Case studies and process tracing: theories and practices. In D. Della Porta & M. Keating (Eds.), Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences: A Pluralist Perspective (pp. 223–239). Cambridge.

Vergara-Camus, L. (2022). The energy transition and the Global South. In H. Veltmeyer & P. Bowles (Eds.), The Essential Guide to Critical Development Studies (2nd ed., pp. 319–326). Routledge.

Report

Dalabajan, D., Mayne, R., Bobson, B., Qazzaz, H., Ushie, H., Ocharan, J., Farr, J., Romero, J., Priego, K., Gomez Correa, L. V., Gomez Ortiz, L., Socci, L., Buenaventura Goldman, M., Rosario Felizco, M., Dabi, N., Chauke, N., Haq, O., Martinez Arellano, P., & Mojica Enciso, S. P. (2022). Towards a Just Energy Transition: Implications for communities in lower- and middle-income countries. Oxfam. https://doi.org/10.21201/2022.9936

Fair Finance Asia (FFA) & NGO Forum on ADB. (2022, December). The Asian Development Bank’s Energy Transition Mechanism: Emerging Social, Environmental and Rights-Based Considerations. https://fairfinanceasia.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/Report_FFA-NGO-Forum-on-ADB_The-Asian-Development-Banks-Energy-Transition-Mechanism-Emerging-Social-Environmental-and-Rights-Based-Considerations_final.pdf

Gibson, L. (2017). Towards a More Equal Indonesia: How the government can take action to close the gap between the richest and the rest. Oxfam. https://oi-files-d8-prod.s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/bp-towards-more-equal-indonesia-230217-en_0.pdf

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2023). SYNTHESIS REPORT OF THE IPCC SIXTH ASSESSMENT REPORT (AR6). https://report.ipcc.ch/ar6syr/pdf/IPCC_AR6_SYR_LongerReport.pdf

Smith, S. (2017, May). Just Transition: A Report for the OECD. https://www.oecd.org/environment/cc/g20-climate/collapsecontents/Just-Transition-Centre-report-just-transition.pdf

Thesis

Wibisono, B. Y. (2015). Impact of Coal Production on Economic Growth in Indonesia [Master Thesis]. Institute of Social Studies.

Journal Article (Retrieved online, with DOI)

Abraham, J. (2017). Just Transitions for the Miners: Labor Environmentalism in the Ruhr and Appalachian Coalfields. New Political Science, 39(2), 218–240. https://doi.org/10.1080/07393148.2017.1301313

Babayomi, O. O., Dahoro, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2022). Affordable clean energy transition in developing countries: Pathways and technologies. IScience, 25(5), 104178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104178

Chen, L. (2018). The challenges and opportunities for the Green Climate Fund. Chinese Journal of Urban and Environmental Studies, 06(01), 1875001. https://doi.org/10.1142/s2345748118750015

Fernandes de Freitas, A., & Jehling, M. (2023). Change and path dependency in expanding energy systems: Explaining Peru's energy transition beyond a North–South divide. Energy Research & Social Science, 99, 103039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2023.103039

Fuhr, H. (2021). The rise of the Global South and the rise in carbon emissions. Third World Quarterly, 42(11), 2724–2746. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2021.1954901

Gasparatos, A., El-Haram, M., & Horner, M. (2008). A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 28(4), 286–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2007.09.002

Gellert, P. K. (2019). Neoliberalism and altered state developmentalism in the twenty-first-century extractive regime of Indonesia. Globalisations, 16(6), 894–918. https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2018.1560189

Hickel, J. (2020). Quantifying national responsibility for climate breakdown: An equality-based attribution approach for carbon dioxide emissions in excess of the planetary boundary. The Lancet Planetary Health, 4(9), e399–e404. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30196-0

Kanger, L. (2021). Rethinking the Multi-level Perspective for energy transitions: From regime life-cycle to explanatory typology of transition pathways. Energy Research & Social Science, p. 71, 101829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101829

Lee, J., & Byrne, J. (2019). Expanding the Conceptual and Analytical Basis of Energy Justice: Beyond the Three-Tenet Framework. Frontiers in Energy Research, 7(9), 1–10. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenrg.2019.00099

McCauley, D., & Heffron, R. (2018). Just transition: Integrating climate, energy and environmental justice. Energy Policy, 119, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.04.014

McGillivray, M., & Clarke, M. (2018). Fairness in the international allocation of development aid. The World Economy, 41(4), 1068–1087. https://doi.org/10.1111/twec.12636

Mendelsohn, R. (2012). THE ECONOMICS OF ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Climate Change Economics, 3(2), 1250006. https://doi.org/10.1142/S2010007812500066

Zeraibi, A., Jahangir, A., Sunday Adebayo, T., Ramzan, M., & Yu, Y. (2023). Greenfield investments, economic complexity, and financial inclusion-environmental quality nexus in BRICS Countries: Does renewable energy transition matter? Gondwana Research, 117, 139-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2022.12.020

Journal Article (Retrieved online, without DOI or page numbers)

Beer, C. T. (2014). Climate Justice, the Global South, and Policy Preferences of Kenyan Environmental NGOs. The Global South, 8(2), 84–100. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/globalsouth.8.2.84

Collins, C. P. (1991). Climate Change Negotiations Polarize. Ambio, 20(7), 340–345. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4313856

Galgóczi, B. (2014). The long and winding road from black to green: Decades of structural change in the Ruhr region. International Journal of Labour Research, 6(2), 217–240. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/actrav/international-journal-labour-research/WCMS_375223/lang--en/index.htm

Swyngedouw, E. (2013). The Non-political Politics of Climate Change. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 12(1), 1–8. Retrieved from https://acme-journal.org/index.php/acme/article/view/948

Newspaper Article (Online)

Afifa, L. (2022, November 18). PLN, ADB to plan early retirement for independent coal power plants. Tempo. Retrieved from https://en.tempo.co/read/1658318/pln-adb-to-plan-early-retirement-for-independent-coal-power-plants

Bhawono, A. (2022, November 19). Pendanaan Pensiun Dini PLTU Ditengarai Tak Bersih Batu Bara. BetaHita. Retrieved from https://betahita.id/news/detail/8161/pendanaan-pensiun-dini-pltu-ditengarai-tak-bersih-batu-bara.html?v=1668789457

CNN Indonesia. (2022, November 18). Pengamat Khawatirkan Potensi Konflik Kepentingan di Transisi Energi RI. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20221117172750-85-875219/pengamat-khawatirkan-potensi-konflik-kepentingan-di-transisi-energi-ri

Reuters. (2022, January 20). Global energy transition to cause short-term economic pain -report. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/business/energy/global-energy-transition-cause-short-term-economic-pain-report-2022-01-20/

Reuters. (2023, January 30). Indonesia sees record coal exports of more than 500 mln tonnes in 2023. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/business/energy/indonesia-sees-record-coal-exports-more-than-500-mln-tonnes-2023-2023-01-30/

Shofa, J. N. (2022, January 20). Indonesia Asks Developed Countries to Fund Energy Transition. The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved from https://jakartaglobe.id/news/indonesia-asks-developed-countries-to-fund-energy-transition

Smith, T. (2022, December 5). Extending off-grid solar access across sub-saharan Africa. ESI. Retrieved from https://www.esi-africa.com/business-and-markets/extending-affordable-off-grid-solar-access-across-sub-saharan-africa/

Sulaiman, F. H. (2022, July 19). The poverty rate drops in Indonesia, but inequality does not. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from https://www.thejakartapost.com/business/2022/07/19/poverty-rate-drops-in-indonesia-but-inequality-does-not.html

Electronic source

Badan Kebijakan Fiskal. (2022, August 4). Pemerintah Terus Sempurnakan ETM di Indonesia. Retrieved from https://fiskal.kemenkeu.go.id/baca/2022/08/05/4365-pemerintah-terus-sempurnakan-etm-di-indonesia

Climate Justice Alliance. (n.d.). Just Transition Principles. Retrieved from https://climatejusticealliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/CJA_JustTransition_highres.pdf

Enhanced Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia. (2022, September). Retrieved from https://ditjenppi.menlhk.go.id/berita-ppi/4357-enhanced-ndc-komitmen-indonesia-untuk-makin-berkontribusi-dalam-menjaga-suhu-global.html

International Labour Organization (ILO). (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions on just transition. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/green-jobs/WCMS_824102/lang--en/index.htm#q_0

Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia (Kemenkeu). (2022, November 14). Siaran Pers: Indonesia Luncurkan ETM Country Platform untuk Percepat Transisi Energi yang Adil dan Terjangkau. Retrieved from https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/informasi-publik/publikasi/siaran-pers/Siaran-Pers-Indonesia-Luncurkan-ETM-Country

Presiden Republik Indonesia. (2022, January 20). Pidato Presiden Republik Indonesia Pada World Economic Forum: State Of The World Address. Retrieved from https://www.presidenri.go.id/transkrip/pidato-presiden-republik-indonesia-pada-world-economic-forum-state-of-the-world-address/



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.81111

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1301 | views : 1426

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

 

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.