Bridging the Gap: Securitizing Lack of Accessible Education in Indonesia During the Covid-19 Pandemic

https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.63312

Aloysius Efraim Leonard(1*), Ruth Latreia Theo Saphira(2)

(1) Universitas Katolik Parahyangan
(2) Universitas Katolik Parahyangan
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The Global South continues to face new threats and challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The debate over health and economy continues and often leaves one aspect out of the equation: education. Especially in Southeast Asia, where regional and domestic disparity still lingers. Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) acknowledged that the development gap remained one of the most crucial issues in the region. Using Wæver and Buzan’s securitization theory and Japanese approach of human security, the article tries to prove why the current state of education should be considered as a new non-traditional security threat and should be securitized by countries in the region. The article will use a qualitative method and hypothesizes that the inability for states to ensure quality education during the pandemic will affect the quality of the states’ human capital. The pandemic forces education institutions to rely on online learning. However, not every student has access towards required facilities such as, internet connection, gadgets, technologies, etc. Students in underdeveloped areas might struggle to participate in online classes, forcing them to be left behind. In the long-run, this will slow down Southeast Asian countries’ progress in tackling the development gap.

Keywords


Indonesia, development gap, human security, lack of education, securitization

Full Text:

PDF


References

References

Books

Buzan, B., Wæver, O., & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Kurniawan, Y. (2018). The Politics of Securitization in Democratic Indonesia. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978-3-319-62482-2

Stein-Kaempfe, J. (2008). Human Security – Völkerrechtliche Aspekte eines internationalen Sicherheitskonzeptes zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts. Duncker & Humblot.

Reports by Government Agency

Badan Pusat Statistik. (n.d.). Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Kelompok Umur dan Jenis Kelamin, 2019. Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/indikator/indikator/view_data_pub/0000/api_pub/58/da_03/1

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2018). STATISTIK TELEKOMUNIKASI INDONESIA 2018. Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2019/12/02/6799f23db22e9bdcf52c8e03/statistik-telekomunikasi-indonesia-2018.html

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2019). Potret Pendidikan Indonesia: Statistik Pendidikan Indonesia 2019 (D. Susilo, M.Si., I. E. Harahap, M.Si., & R. Sinang, SST., M.Si., Eds.). Badan Pusat Statistik - Jakarta. 2662-8025

Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (KEMDIKBUD). (2020, Augustus 12). Menuju Transformasi Digital Pendidikan Indonesia. Pusat Data dan Teknologi Informasi Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Retrieved from https://pusdatin.kemdikbud.go.id/menuju-transformasi-digital-pendidikan-indonesia/

Afandi, T., & Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/Bappenas. (2017, May 22). Siaran Pers Bonus Demografi 2030-2040: Strategi Indonesia Terkait Ketenagakerjaan dan Pendidikan. 1-2.

Reports by International Organization

Avvisati, F., Echazarra, A., Givord, P., Schwabe, M., & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2019). Country Note: Indonesia. PISA 2018 Results, I-III, 1. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/publications/PISA2018_CN_IDN.pdf

Borrero, R. M. (2016). Indigenous Peoples and the Information Society: Emerging uses of ICTs. UNESCO.

Islamic Development Bank. (2018). Reverse Linkage: Development through South-South Cooperation (S. Nicklin & B. Cornwell, Compilers). Tudor Rose. ISBN: 978-0-9956487-2-2

Schleicher, A., & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2019). PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations. 3-9. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/PISA%202018%20Insights%20and%20Interpretations%20FINAL%20PDF.pdf

OECD. (2020). Education and COVID-19: Focusing on the long-term impact of school closures. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/education-and-covid-19-focusing-on-the-long-term-impact-of-school-closures-2cea926e/ ‌

Online News Article

BBC Indonesia. (2020, March 24). Virus corona: UN 2020 resmi dibatalkan, 'harus ada nilai setara yang berlaku universal' untuk menyeleksi murid baru. BBC. Retrived from https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-52014139

BBC Indonesia. (2020, Mei 13). Virus corona: Kisah guru di Jawa Barat mendatangi rumah murid-muridnya yang tidak punya gawai dan sulit akses siaran televisi. BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/majalah-52642997

CNN Indonesia. (2020, August 7). Nadiem: Kurikulum Darurat Covid-19 Sudah Siap, Ada 2 Komponen. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200807194704-20-533419/nadiem-kurikulum-darurat-covid-19-sudah-siap-ada-2-komponen

Iswara, M. A. (2020). Disconnected: Digital divide may jeopardize human rights. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/05/18/disconnected-digital-divide-may-jeopardize-human-rights.html

Souisa, H. (2020, August 5). Menjawab Tantangan Belajar Jarak Jauh di Indonesia: Dari Keliling ke Rumah Murid dan Memberikan Internet Gratis Untuk Pelajar. ABC (Australia Broadcasting Company). Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/indonesian/2020-08-05/sejumlah-solusi-untuk-tantangan-belajar-jarak-jauh-di-indonesia/12523736

Journal Article (retrieved online, without DOI or page numbers)

Acharya, A. (2001). Human Security: East versus West. International Journal, 56(3), 442-460. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40203577

Adisti, R. (2017). Human Development Impact of the Implementation of Broadband: A case study of the Indonesian Palapa Ring Project. TU Delft.

Bosold, D., & Werthes, S. (2005). Human Security in Practice: Canadian and Japanese Experiences. International Politics and Society, 1, 84-101. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237671115_Human_Security_in_Practice_Canadian_and_Japanese_Experiences

Commission on Human Security. (2003). Human Security Now. Commission on Human Security.

Gribble, J. N., & Bremner, J. (2012). Achieving a Demographic Dividend. Population Bulletin, 46(2), 2. Rerieved from: https://www.prb.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/achieving-demographic-dividend.pdf

Vineles, P. (2018, January 12). Enhancing ASEAN's Competitiveness: The Skills Challenge. RSIS, 6. Retrieved from: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CO18006.pdf

Journal Article (retrieved online, with DOI)

Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i-vi. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3778083

Collins, A. (2005). Securitization, Frankenstein's Monster and Malaysian education. The Pacific Review, 18(4), 567-588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09512740500339034

Mailizar, Almanthari, A., Maulina, S., & Bruce, S. (2020). Secondary School Mathematics Teachers’ Views on E-learning Implementation Barriers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Indonesia. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(7), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/8240

Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3), 492-505. https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2020.1761749

Rahiem, M. D. H. (2020). The Emergency Remote Learning Experience of University Students in Indonesia amidst the COVID-19 Crisis. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(6), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.6.1

Press Release

United Nations Children's Fund. (2020, August 26). Press Release: COVID-19: At least a third of the world’s schoolchildren unable to access remote learning during school closures, new report says. UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/covid-19-least-third-worlds-schoolchildren-unable-access-remote-learning-during

Other Electronic Source

Thomas, V. F. (2020, September 4). Ironi Palapa Ring: Tak Terpakai Saat Indonesia Kesulitan Internet. Tirto. Retrieved from: https://tirto.id/ironi-palapa-ring-tak-terpakai-saat-indonesia-kesulitan-internet-f3fQ

Working Paper

Thomas, D., Beegle, K., Frankenberg, E., Sikoki, B., Strauss, J., & Teruel, G. (2001). Education in a Crisis. UCLA On-Line Working Paper Series.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.63312

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1771 | views : 1343

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats