WTO’S Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) and Indonesia’s Compliance in Agriculture Sector

https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.32794

Dewangga Dura Dematar(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This article is designed to appraise TPRM as a monitoring instrument in WTO and understand how it affects Indonesia’s compliance in the agriculture sector. On paper, TPRM should be exercised as a surveillance system to boost transparency and compliance. However, the author doubts the current periodic, differentiated by economic power, and the self-serving reporting system of the TPRM. As this process is complicated and flexible, where often used as a diplomatic visit or excuses to initiate diplomatic relations between turbulent nations, the writer believes that TPRM is only the tip of the iceberg with unlimited complex problems underneath. Adapting instruments from International Law and Rational Choice Theory, the writer borrowed Guzman’s framework to determine how TPRM could affect Indonesia’s compliance in the agriculture sector. This article will give a better understanding of the monitoring process of an international institution, especially the one with no law enforcement system and  held fundamentally by mutual respect and good faith.


Keywords


WTO; TPRM; Indonesia; Agriculture; Compliance; Guzman; International Law; Surveillance.

Full Text:

PDF


References

Book

Chayes A.H. & Chayes A. (1993). On Compliance. 47 International Organization.

Chayes, A. & Chayes, A.H. (1998). The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements. Harvard University Press. ISBN-10 : 0674617835, ISBN-13: 978-0674617834

Goldsmith, J. Posner, E.A. (2005). The Limits of International Law. Oxford University Press. University of Michigan.

Henkin, L. (1979). How Nations Behave: Law and Foreign Policy. pg. 45-48

James, P. Ronen, P. (2007). Globalization and Economy, Vol.3: Global Economic Regimes and Institutions. London. Sage Publications, pg.xiv.

Keohane, R.O. (1984). After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Econony. NJ: Princeton University Press.

Keohane,R.O. (2005). After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton Classic Edition. Princeton University Press. ISBN-10: 0691122482. ISBN-13: 978-0691122489, supranote 14.

Keohane, R.O. (1989). Neo Liberal Institutionalism. International Institutions and State Power. ed.1, pg.3

Wolfrum,R., Stoll, P.T., Kaiser, K. (2006). WTO – Institutions and Dispute Settlement (Max Planck Commentaries on World Trade Law). Brill Academic Publisher.

Report

ALEC (Australia Livestock Exporter Council). Livestock Export Statistics. ALEC Trade Statistics. Retrieved from: http://auslivestockexport.com/trade-statistics/.

Conclusion of the Siena Forums on International Law of the Environment. (1990). Siena, Italy. Reprinted in Y.B. International Envtl. L. 704, 707.

Elsig, M. Eckhart, J. Iliuteamu, M. (2013). Functioning of the WTO: Mapping Challenges and asking Hard Question. Background Paper, ICTSD – WTI Expert Group Meeting, E-15 Initiative. Geneva.

Notification Requirements under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. WTO Document G/SCM/W/546/Rev.3, 12 April 2012, p.4

Understanding the WTO. WTO Handbook. World Trade Organization. Geneva. ISBN 978-92-870-3748-0.

VanGrasstek, C. The History and Future of the World Trade Organization. Chapter 8: Notification, Trade Policy Reviews and Monitoring. World Trade Organization, pg. 273.

WTO Secretariat. (2013). Trade Policy Review: Report by Secretariat, Indonesia –Revised Version. World Trade Organization.

WTO TPRM Legal Text. (1994). WTO Official Website. Retrieved from: https://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/29-tprm_e.htm

Journal Article (retrieved online, without DOI or page numbers)

Duruigbo, E. (2001). International Relations, Economic and Compliance with International Law: Harnessing Common Resources to Protect the Environment and Solve Global Problem. California Western International Law Journal. Volume 31, Number 2.

Guzman, A.T. (2002). A Compliance Based Theory of International Law. California Law Review, Volume 90, Issue 6, Article 2, pg. 1829

Guzman, A.T. (2005). Reputation and International Law. Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository. Berkeley.

Xiankun, L. (2015). Reflection and Recommendation on the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Translated Version of his original work, translation available at his personal linkedin profile, published in 12 December 2015, Retrieved from: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/reflections-recommendations-wtos-trade-policy-review-mechanism-lu

News article

Brann, M. New Cattle Tax Surprises Live Export Trade to Indonesia as First Shipments Arrive. ABC Rural. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-01-18/new-import-tax-surprises-live-cattle-trade-to-indonesia/7094874.

Nangoy, F. (2016). Indonesia Lowers Export Tax for Crude Palm Oil in July to Zero. Also available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/indonesia-palmoil-tax-idUSJ9N18Y00

Owens, J. (2015). Indonesia Dramatically Cuts Live Cattle Imports to Only 50.000. The Weekend Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/indonesia-dramatically-cuts-live-cattle-imports-to-only-50000/news-story/febc06896403a90eab27671154be2fce.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.32794

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1239 | views : 1508

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats