Civil Society as Peacebuilder in the Internet Era

https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.28848

Edwin Prasetiawan(1*), Arofatin Maulina Ulfa(2)

(1) Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Universitas Jember
(2) Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Universitas Jember
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Peace building in the modern era is different from those in the World War era. While the latter focused more on the state-to-state policy, the former involves the participation of the society. Part of the explanation is the fast growing development of information and technology, particularly the development of internet, which has helped providing more spaces for civil society to involve and to influence peace building process in any humanitarian activities. This space, as manifested in various social media such as Facebook and Twitter, has become a new way for the so-called netizen (internet citizen) to access information on the existing conflicts, advocate or campaign for the management and settlement of the conflicts, gather financial supports for the peace building process, and develop confidence building among people of the conflicting parties. However, at the same time this space may jeopardize the peace building process as people has no restriction in expressing their opinion online which could deteriorate the relations among people from both sides. This paper, therefore, aims to examine the role of this online activism to peace building process in various cases.



Keywords


civil society; social media; peace building

Full Text:

PDF


References

Amnesty International. 2014. Amnesy International Report 2014/2015. Asia Pasific Regional Overview dalam https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/asia-and-the-pacific/report-asia-pacific/ diakses tanggal 16 September 2014

Anheier, H., Glasius, M. and Kaldor, M. (eds) (2001). Global civil society 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

BBC World Service (2001) What is Civil Society? dalam http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/highlights/010705_civil.shtml diakses tanggal 25 Juni 2015.

Blank, G. & Groselj, D. (2014) Dimensions of Internet use: amount, variety, and types, Information, Communication & Society, 17:4, 417-435, DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2014.889189.

Castells, M. (2014) The Impact of The Internet on Society: A Global Perspective dalam http://www.technologyreview.com/view/530566/the-impact-of-the-internet-on-society-a-global-perspective/ diakses tanggal 24 Juni 2015.

Collins English Dictionary. (2015). Civil Society dalam http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/civil-society diakses tanggal 25 Juni 2015.

Cubitt, C. (2013) Constructing civil society: an intervention for building peace. Peace building1:1, 91-108.

de Tocqueville, A. (1863) Chapter 12: Political Association In The United States. Dalam http://xroads.virginia.edu/ ~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch12.htm diakses tanggal 16 September 2014.

DeNardis, L. (2012) Hidden Levers Of Internet Control, Information, Communication & Society, 15:5, 720-738, DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2012. 659199.

Eaton, M. (2010) Manufacturing Community In An OnlineActivist Organization, Information, Communication & Society, 13:2, 174-192, DOI:10.1080/ 13691180902890125.

Gellner, E. (1994). Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and Its Rivals. London: Hamish Hamilton.

Goode, L. (2010) Cultural Citizenship Online: The Internet and Digital Culture. Citizenship Studies 14:5 527-542.

Harlow, S. & Harp, D. (2012) Collective Action On The Web, Information, Communication & Society, 15:2, 196-216, DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2011.591411.

http://www.change.org/id

http://www.statista.com

Imawan, R.P. (2013) Dua Aktor Demokrasi: Menelisik Peran Organisasi Masyarakat Sipil di Indonesia. Prisma. 32:4, 28-37.

Jordan . T., 2002, Activism : Direct Action, Hactivism and the Future of Society. London : Reaktion Books.

Kaldor, M., Kostovicova, D & Said, Y. (2007) War and Peace: The Role of Global Civil Society dalam Anheier, H., kaldor, M. and Glasius, M. (2007) .Global Civil Society 2006/07. London: Sage.

Keane, J. (2003). Global civil society?. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keck, M. & Sikkink, K. (1999) Transnasional Advocacy Networks In International And Regional Politics dalam http://courses.washington.edu/pbaf531/KeckSikkink.pdf diakses tanggal 10 Oktober 2014.

Kittilson, M.C. & Dalton, R.J. (2011) Virtual Civil Society: The New Frontier of Social Capital? Polit Behav 33, 625-644.

Marchetti, R. & Tocci, N. (2009) Conflict Society: Understanding The Role Of Civil Society in Conflict, Global Change, Peace & Security. 21:2. 201-217.

Okolloh,O. (2008). Ushahidi, or ‘testimony’: Web 2.0 tools for crowdsourcing crisis information dalam http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02842.pdf diakses tanggal 24 Juni 2015.

Pietrzyk, D.I. (2001) Civil Society: Conceptual History from Hobbes to Marx Marie Curie Working Papers –No 1 diakses dari http://graduateinsti tute.ch/files/live/sites/iheid/files/sites/political_science/shared/political _science/1836/Week_3_Petrzyk.pdf pada tanggal 16 September 2014.

Price, E. (2013) Social Media and Democracy Australian Journal of Political Science, 48:4,519-527.

Richmond, Oliver P. (2008) Peace in International Relations. New York: Routledge.

Schmidt, E. & Cohen, J. Hanna, Selviya (pent.) (2014) The New Digital Age. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Sommerfeldt, E.J. (2013) Online Power Resource Management: Activist Resource Mobilization, Communica-tion Strategy, and Organizational Structure, Journal of Public Relations Research, 25:4, 347-367, DOI: 10.1080/1062726X. 2013.806871.

Suharko (2003) NGO, Civil Societydan Demokrasi: Kritik Atas Pandangan Liberal. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, 7: 2, 205-226.

The Internet Big Picture World Internet Users and Population Stats 2014 http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm diakses tanggal 10 Oktober 2014.

Thornton, A.L. (2001) Does the internet create democracy?, Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 22:2, 126-14.

Triwibowo, D. (2006). Gerakan Sosial : Wahana Civil Society Bagi Demokratisasi. Jakarta : LP3ES.

Tvedt, T. (2002) Development NGOs: Actors in a Global Civil Society or in a New International Social System? Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, Vol. 13, No. 4, Global Civil Society (December 2002), pp. 363-375.

van Leeuwen, M. & Verkoren, W. (2012) Complexities and Challenges for Civil Society Building in Post-Conflict Settings, Journal of Peace building & Development, 7:1, 81-94, DOI: 10.1080/15423166.2012.719353.

van Tongeren, P. (2013) Potential Cornerstone of Infrastructures For Peace? How Local Peace Com-mittees Can Make a Difference, Peace building, 1:1, 39-60, DOI:10.1080/21647259.2013.756264.

Vegh. S. (2003) Classifying Forms of Online Activism: The Case of Cyberprotests against the World Bankdalam McCaughey, M. and Ayers, M. (eds) (2003) Cyberactivism. New York: Routledge.

Verkoren, W. & van Leeuwen, M. (2013) Civil Society in Peace building: Global Discourse, Local Reality, International Peacekeeping, 20:2, 159-172, DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2013.791560.

WHO. (2015). Civil Society dalam http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story006/en/ diakses tanggal 24 Juni 2015.

Widjajanto, A. (2007). Transnasionalisasi masyarakat sipil. Depok: FISIP UI Press.

Yang, G. (2014) The Return of Ideology and the Future of Chinese Internet Policy, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 31:2, 109-113, DOI: 10.1080/15295036.2014.913803.

 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/globalsouth.28848

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1260 | views : 5891

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats