zoonosis

Analisis Risiko Penularan Zoonosis dari Serangga Konsumsi



I Made Adi Prema Nanda(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Risiko pandemi zoonosis akan meningkat seiring peningkatan konsumsi masyarakat terhadap hewan ternak dan satwa liar sebagai sumber protein hewani. Konsumsi ini akan terus meningkat seiring peningkatan jumlah penduduk dan taraf hidup. Produksi hewan ternak selain dapat menularkan zoonosis juga dapat merusak lingkungan sehingga kemudian memunculkan tren entomofagi (entomophagy) atau mengonsumsi serangga (edible insect) yang dinilai lebih ramah lingkungan. Serangga konsumsi juga memiliki nilai gizi yang mampu bersaing dengan daging sehingga dianggap potensial untuk dikembangkan. Sampai saat ini belum banyak informasi terkait kemungkinan penyebaran zoonosis dari serangga ke manusia yang ditakutkan menjadi penyebab pandemi di masa depan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif deskriptif untuk mengetahui kemungkinan serangga konsumsi sebagai penular zoonosis ke manusia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui teknik dokumentasi dengan melakukan pelacakan dokumen dan informasi terkait dengan topik yang dikaji. Analisis data dilakukan melalui tahapan reduksi data, penyajian data, verifikasi dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian ini adalah sampai saat ini belum ada bukti bahwa serangga konsumsi dapat menularkan zoonosis pada manusia karena hubungan kekerabatan antara serangga dan manusia sangat jauh. Kemungkinan penularan penyakit melalui permukaan tubuh serangga dapat diatasi dengan pengolahan yang tepat sebelum dikonsumsi.


Keywords


serangga; zoonosis; Entomophagy; edible insect

Full Text:

PDF


References

Andersen, Inger dan Johan Rockstrom. “COVID-19 Is a Symptom of a Bigger Problem: Our Planet’s Ailing Health”.Time.com, diakses 12 Juli 2020, https://time.com/5848681/covid-19-world-environment-day/


Auerswald, Lutz dan Andreas L Lopata. “Insects: diversity and allergy.” Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology 18 (2005) : 58–60.


Ayieko, Monica, John Kinyuru, Milicent Ndong’a dan Glaston M Kenji. “Nutritional value and consumption of black ants (Carebara vidua Smith) from the Lake Victoria region in Kenya.” Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4, no. 1 (2012): 39–45.


Banjo, A.D, O. A. Lawal dan E.A. Songonuga. “The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern Nigeria.” African Journal of Biotechnology 5, no. 3 (2006) : 298–301.
Barletta, B. dan C Pini. “Does occupational exposure to insects lead to speciesspecific sensitization?” Allergy 58 (2003): 868–870.


Bouvier, G. “Quelques questions d’entomologie vétérinaire et lutte contre certains arthropodes en Afrique tropicale.” Acta Trop 2 (1945) : 42–59.


Casanova, Lisa M, Soyoung Jeon, William A. Rutala, David J. Weber, Mark D. Sobsey. “Effects of air temperature and relative humidity on coronavirus survival on surfaces.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76 (2010) : 2712-2717. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.02291-09

Cascio, Antonio, Mile Bosilkovski, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Georgios Pappas. “The socio-ecology of zoonotic infections.” Clin Microbiol Infect 17 (2011):336–342.
Cerritos, R. “Insects as food: an ecological, social and economical approach.” CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 4, no. 27 (2009) : 1–10.


Chan, K.H., J.S.M Peiris, S.Y. Lam, L.L.M. Poon, K.Y. Yuen dan W.H. Seto. “The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the viability of the SARS coronavirus.” Advances in Virology (2011): 734690-734690. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/734690


Chapagain, A.K. & Hoekstra, A.Y. “Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestock and livestock products.” Value of Water Research Report Series No. 13. Paris, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2003).


Chen, P.P., S. Wongsiri, T. Jamyanya, T.E. Rinderer, S. Vongsamanode, M. Matsuka, H.A. Sylvester dan B.P. Oldroyd. “Honey bees and other edible insects used as human food in Thailand.” American Entomologist, 44, no. 1 (1998): 24–28. https://doi.org/10.1093/ae/44.1.24


Dehghani, Rouhullah dan Hamid Kassiri. “A brief review on the possible role of houseflies and cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).” Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases 15 (2020): e102863. https://doi.org/10.5812/archcid.102863


Dicke, M, J. Eilenberg, J. Falcao Salles , A.B. Jensen, A. Lecocq, G.P. Pijlman, J.J.A. van Loon dan M.M. van Oers. “Edible insects unlikely to contribute to transmission of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.” Journal of Insects as Food and Feed (2020): 1-8 https://doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2020.0039


Eilenberg, Jorgen dan Annette Bruun Jensen. “Prevention and management of diseases in terrestrial invertebrates.” Dalam : Hajek, Ann E. dan D.I. ShapiroIlan. Ecology of invertebrate diseases, 495-526. Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119256106.ch14

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). “Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed.” EFSA Journal 13 (2015) : 4257. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4257


FAO. State of the world fisheries. Rome : FAO, 2012.
Finke, Mark D. “Complete nutrient composition of commercially raised invertebrates used as food for insectivores.” Zoo Biology 21(3) (2002): 269–285. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.10031


Fong, I.W. Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century. Gewerbestrasse : Springer International Publishing, 2017.


Gerber, P.J., H. Steinfeld, B. Henderson, A. Mottet, C. Opio, J. Dijkman, A. Falcucci dan G. Tempio. Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock: A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Roma : FAO, 2013.


Handley, Margaret A., Celeste Hall, Eric Sanford, Evie Diaz, Enrique Gonzalez-Mendez, Kaitie Drace, Robert Wilson, Mario Villalobos dan Mary Croughan. “Globalization, binational communities, and imported food risks: results of an outbreak investigation of lead poisoning in Monterey County, California.” American Journal of Public Health 97, no. 5 (2007): 900–906. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.074138


Howard, Ralph W. dan David W. Stanley-Samuelson. “Phospholipid fatty acid composition and arachidonic acid metabolism in selected tissues of adult Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).” Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83, no. 5 (1990): 975–981. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/83.5.975

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 diakses 5 Juli 2020
IPCC. Summary for policymakers. Dalam : S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor dan H.L. Miller, eds. Climate change 2007 : The physical science basis. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007.


Jensen, R. L., L.D. Newsom, D.C. Herzog, J.W. Thomas, B.R. Farthing dan F.A. Martin. “A method of estimating insect defoliation of soybean.” Journal of Economic Entomology 70, no. 2 (1977): 240–242. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/70.2.240


Jongema, Yde. List of edible insect species of the world. Wageningen, Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, 2012. Tersedia di www.ent.wur.nl/UK/Edible+insects/ Worldwide+species+list/


Kellert, Stephen R. “Values and perceptions of invertebrates.” Conservation Biology 7, no. 4 (1993): 845–855. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.740845.x


Klunder, H.C., J.C.M. Wolkers-Rooijackers, Jaakko M. Korpela dan M.J. Robert Nout. “Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects.” Food Control 26 (2012): 628–631. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.02.013


Krause, Denies O. dan Stephen Hendrick. Zoonotic Pathogens in The Food Chain. Oxfordshire : CAB Internasional, 2011.


Kuyten, P. “Darmafsluiting veroorzaakt door het eten van kevers.” Entomologische berichten 20, no. 8 (1960) : 143.


Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wei Wei, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Wen-Juan Li, Lian-Feng Li, Gabriel M Leung, Edward C. Holmes, Yan-Ling Hu dan Yi Guan. “Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronavirus in Malayan pangolin in southern China.” BioRxiv (2020). https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.13.945485


Lindqvist, Lars dan Mats Block. “Excretion of cadmium during moulting and metamorphosis in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae).” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 111, no. 2 (1995): 325–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-8413(95)00057-U


Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela. and Vera I.D. Ros. “Viruses of insects reared for food and feed.” Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 147 (2017) : 60-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2017.01.013


Meslin, F.X. dan P. Formenty. A review of emerging zoonoses and the public health implications. Report of the WHO/FAO/OIE joint consultation on emerging zoonotic diseases, 3–5 May 2004, Geneva.


Muyay, T. Les insectes comme aliments de l’homme: Serie II, Vol. 69. Democratic Republic of the Congo : Ceeba Publications, 1981


Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B., Joost van Itterbeeck, Marcel J. W. Heetkamp, Henry van den Brand, Joop J. A. van Loon, Arnold van Huis. “An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.” Plos One 5, no.12 (2010): e14445.


Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. & Imke J.M. de Boer. “Environmental impact of the production of hongkongs as a protein source for humans: a life cycle assessment.” PLoS ONE 7, no.12 (2012): e51145. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051145


Phillips, J.K. dan W.E. Burkholder. “Allergies related to food insect production and consumption.” The Food Insects Newsletter 8, no. 2 (1995): 1, 2–4.


Pimentel, David, Bonnie Berger, David Filiberto, Michelle Newton, Benjamin Wolfe, Elizabeth Karabinakis, Steven Clark, Elaine Poon, Elizabeth Abbett dan Sudha Nandagopal. “Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues.” BioScience 54 (2004): 909–918. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0909:WRAAEI]2.0.CO;2


Reese, G., R. Ayuso dan S.B. Lehrer. “Tropomyosin: An invertebrate pan-allergen.” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 119, no. 4 (1999): 247–258. https://doi.org/10.1159/000024201


Rojas-Downing, M. Melissa, A. Pouyan Nejadhashemi, Timothy Harrigan dan Sean A.Woznicki. “Climate Change and Livestock : Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation.” Climate Risk Management 16 (2017):145—163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2017.02.001


Rumpold, Birgit A. dan Oliver K. Schlüter. “Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 57, no. 3 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201200735


Sachs, J. “Rethinking macroeconomics: knitting together global society.” The Broker 10 (2010): 1–3.


Shi, Mang, Xian-Dan Lin, Jun-Hua Tian, Liang-Jun Chen, Xiao Chen, Ci-Xiu Li, Xin-Cheng Qin, Jun Li, Jian-Ping Cao, John-Sebastian Eden, Jan Buchmann, Wen Wang, Jianguo Xu, Edward C. Holmes dan Yong-Zhen Zhang. “Redefining the invertebrate RNA virosphere.” Nature 540 (2016): 539-543. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature20167


Slingenbergh, J.I., Marius Gilbert, Katinka de Balogh dan William Wint. “Ecological sources of zoonotic diseases.” Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 23, no. 2 (2004): 467–484. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.23.2.1492


Steinfeld, Henning, Pierre Gerber, Tom Wassenaar, Vincent Castel, Mauricio Rosales dan Cees de Haan. Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Rome : FAO, 2006.


Taylor L.H., S.M. Latham dan M.E. Woolhouse. “Risk Factors for Human Disease Emergence.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci (2001) https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2001.0888


U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, 2012. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl


United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) Population Division. World Population Prospects – The 2012 Revision - Highlight and Advance Tables (Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.228.) New York : United Nation, 2013.


Van Huis, Arnold, Joost Van Itterbeeck, Harmke Klunder, Esther Mertens, Afton Halloran, Giulia Muir dan Paul Vantomme. Edible insects : future prospects for food and feed security. Roma : Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, 2013


Van Huis, Arnold. “Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.” Annual Review of Entomology 58, no.1 (2013): 563–583. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704


Van Lenteren, J.C. “Ecosystem services to biological control of pests: why are they ignored?” Proc. Neth. Entomol. Soc. Meet. 17 (2006) : 103–111.


Vega, Fernando dan Harry Kaya. Insect Pathology 2nd Edition. London : Academic Press, 2012.


Vijver, Martina, Tjalling Jager, Leo Posthuma dan Willie Peijnenburg. “Metal uptake from soils and soil-sediment mixtures by larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera).” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 54, no. 3 (2003): 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-6513(02)00027-1


Wang LF dan Crameri G. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz 33, no. 2 (2014) : 569-581.


Weaver, Scott C. dan William K. Reisen. “Present and future arboviral threats.” Antiviral Research 85 (2010): 328-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.10.008


Woolhouse, Mark, Eleanor Gaunt. “Ecological origins of novel human pathogens.” Crit Rev Microbiol 33 (2007): 231–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408410701647560

Daftar Tabel
Tabel 1
Arnold Van Huis. “Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.” Annual Review of Entomology 58, no.1 (2013): 563–583. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704


Tabel 2
Henning Steinfeld,dkk. Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Rome : FAO, 2006.


Tabel 3
Henning Steinfeld,dkk. Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Rome : FAO, 2006.
Tabel 4


Dennis G.A.B. Oonincx dan Imke J.M. de Boer. “Environmental impact of the production of hong kong’s as a protein source for humans: a life cycle assessment.” PLoS ONE 7, no.12 (2012): e51145. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051145


Tabel 5
Diadaptasi dari Finke (2002) dan USDA (2012) oleh Oonincx


Tabel 6
Diadaptasi dari Finke (2002) dan USDA (2012) oleh Oonincx


Tabel 7
Diadaptasi dari Finke (2002) dan USDA (2012) oleh Oonincx




Article Metrics

Abstract views : 751 | views : 510

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Diterbitkan oleh BPPM Balairung, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Kompleks Perumahan Dosen UGM, Bulaksumur B-21, Caturtunggal, Kecamatan Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281.
email: balairungpress@gmail.com | LINE: @GSJ9240C | http://balairungpress.com
    
2018 BPPM BALAIRUNG UGM