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UJI TOKSISITAS SODIUM SIANIDA (NaCN) PADA BEBERAPA SPESIES IKAN AIR TAWAR: REVIEW (The Toxicity Test of Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) to Some Species of Freshwater Fish: A Review)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.23117

Siti Muyassaroh(1*), Indah Rahmatiah Siti Salami(2)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Abdurachman Saleh, Jalan PB Sudirman No.07, Situbondo, 68312.
(2) Program Studi Magister Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung, 40132.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstrak

Sianida telah digunakan sebagai senyawa toksik selama beberapa dekade untuk penangkapan ikan. Pengetahuan para nelayan yang rendah dapat menyebabkan kelebihan dosis penggunaan senyawa sianida. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan kematian ikan dan bahkan kerusakan terumbu karang. Sodium sianida tidak bersifat bioakumulasi dan biomagnifikasi berdasarkan nilai Kow-nya dan sebagian besar metabolit dikeluarkan melalui urin dalam bentuk thiosianat, SCN- (60-80%), 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) atau 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, ITCA (15%), serta gas HCN dan CO2. Biomarker organisme yang terpapar sianida yaitu kandungan CN-, SCN-,ATCA atau ITCA pada urin dan darah; perubahan histopatologis di limpa, hepato-renal dan ginjal; penurunan aktivitas enzim katalase pada jaringan hati, insang, otak, dan otot ikan; perubahan aktivitas laktat dehydrogenase (LDH) dan suksinat dehydrogenase (SDH), tingkah laku, laju respirasi, dan metabolit (asam piruvat dan asam laktat). Akan tetapi, aktivitas enzim dan struktur histopatologis kembali normal setelah pemulihan selama 14 hari di medium bebas NaCN. Paparan NaCN juga dapat menyebabkan perubahan kecepatan renang dan durasi surfacing behavior. Konsentrasi sianida di lingkungan tidak bisa diabaikan, sebab dimungkinkan adanya efek sinergis dan juga penghambatan sistem enzim katalase, yang pada akhirnya terjadi kerentanan organisme akuatik terhadap toksisitas sianida. Labeo rohita merupakan spesies ikan air tawar yang paling sensitif terhadap paparan NaCN, dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 0,32 mg/L (tanpa melihat jenis aliran yang digunakan).

Abstract

Cyanide has been used as a toxic compound for decades for fishing. Lack of knowledge of fishermen can lead to overdosing use of a compound. This can lead to fish kills and even damage the coral reefs. Sodium cyanide is not bioaccumulative and biomagnificative based on the value of Kow and most metabolites are excreted in the urine in the form of SCN- (60-80%), 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid, ATCA or 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, ITCA (15%), as well as HCN gas and CO2. Biomarkers organisms are exposed cyanide content of CN-, SCN-, ATCA or ITCA on urine and blood; histopathological changes in spleen, hepato-renal and kidney; decreased activity of catalase enzyme in the liver, gills, brain, and muscles of fish; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity changes, behavioral, respiratory rate, and metabolites (pyruvic acid and lactic acid). However, the enzyme activity and histopathological structure back to normal after recovery for 14 days at NaCN-free medium. NaCN exposure can also cause changes in swimming speed and duration of surfacing behavior. The concentration of cyanide in the environment can not be ignored, because it is possible the existence of a synergistic effect and also the inhibition of catalase enzyme system, which eventually happened vulnerability of aquatic organisms to cyanide toxicity. Labeo rohita is a freshwater fish species are most sensitive to exposure to NaCN, with LC50 values of 0.32 mg / L (regardless of the type of flow used).


Keywords


biomarker; ikan air tawar; toksisitas; sodium sianida; bahan beracun; freshwater fish; toxicity; sodiium cyanide; toxic chemical.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.23117

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