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SEBUAH DILEMA PERTANIAN ORGANIK TERKAIT EMISI METAN (A Dilemma on Organic Farming in Relation to Methane Emission)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18726

Ernitha Panjaitan(1*), Didik Indradewa(2), Edhi Martono(3), Junun Sartohadi(4)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian,Universitas Methodist Indonesia, Jl.Harmonika Baru Psr.II, Tanjung Sari, Medan 20131. Program Doktor pada Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan, Sekolah Pasca Sarjana, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281.
(2) BagianAgronomi Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Bagian Perlindungan Tanaman Fakultas, Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281.
(4) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Gas metana (CH4) adalah salah satu gas rumah kaca yang cukup berperan setelah CO2. Peningkatan metana di atmosfer pada belakangan ini perlu diantisipasi mengingat daya pemanasan global yang ditimbulkannya per satu molekul gas metana di troposfer 21 kali lebih tinggi daripada daya pemanasan satu molekul CO2. Tanah sawah adalah salah satu kontributor gas metana sekitar 10-15%. Metana diproduksi sebagai hasil akhir dari proses dekomposisi mikrobial bahan organik secara anaerobik oleh bakteri metanogen. Emisi gas metana ditentukan oleh pengelolaan air, pengolahan tanah, varietas, dan iklim. Seiring dengan kesadaran masyarakat terhadap produk pangan yang sehat, serta ramah lingkungan, maka permintaan akan beras organik meningkat, sehingga perlu diupayakan dengan giat intensifikasi maupun ekstensifikasi budidaya padi organik. Namun, budidaya padi organik menghadapi dilema yaitu peningkatan produksi gas metana lebih tinggi daripada budidaya padi konvensional.

ABSTRACT

Methane (CH4) is the second main type of gas after CO2 in contributing global warning. The increasing of methane in our atmosphere should be anticipated because its effect of single molecule of methane to the warning up our trophosphere is 21 times higher than single molecule of CO2 . Paddy field soils as one of contributors produce 10-15 % of methane in our atmosphere. The methane is produced as results of microbial processes on aerobic organic matters decomposition by metanogene bacteria. The amount of methane production is determined by soil water management, crop species, and climate. In line with the community awarness in healthy and environmental friendly product of food, the demand of organic rice has increased. However, the organic farming has trade off situation due to its methane production higher than the conventional farming.


Keywords


bahan organik; emisi metana; padi; pemanasan global; pertanian konvensional; pertanian organik; organic matters; methane; paddy; global warning; conventional farming; organic farming



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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18726

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