Cover Image

LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18540

Arif Dwi Santoso(1*), Sudaryono Sudaryono(2)

(1) Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi, Puspiptek Area, Gd 820 Tangerang Selatan, 15314
(2) PS Ilmu Lingkungan, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Indonesia, Jl. Salemba Raya 4 Jakarta 10430
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Biaya produksi biodiesel menjadi salah satu hambatan program konversi bahan bakar minyak ke biodiesel negara-negara termasuk Indonesia dalam upaya mengantipasi terjadinya krisis energi. Salah satu penyebab biaya produksi yang tinggi adalah karena variabel biaya produksi yang diperbandingkan selama ini belum sepenuhnya mencerminkan keseluruhan potensi yang terkandung dalam biodiesel. Potensi biodiesel yang tergolong ke dalam komoditas lingkungan seperti sifat terbarukan, rendah dalam penggunaan lahan, dan ramah lingkungan perlu dimasukkan dalam perhitungan agar mendapatkan perbandingan perhitungan yang obyektif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh penambahan komoditas lingkungan pada stuktur biaya produksi biodiesel dari minyak sawit dan minyak alga. Nilai komoditas lingkungan diperkirakan dengan metode metode benefit transfer dan untuk memperlihatkan nilai keuntungan digunakan pendekatan willing to pay (WTP). Nilai-nilai komoditas lingkungan diacu dari hasil perhitungan perangkat lunak Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS) versi 2000. Untuk kasus Indonesia, nilai komoditas lingkungan EPS diinferensi dengan elastisitas berdasarkan dari perbandingan nilai pendapatan per kapita negara Swedia dan Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa analisis life cycle costing (LCC) yang diaplikasikan dengan menambahkan variabel eksternalitas dapat memberikan informasi yang detil tentang komposisi biaya produksi biodiesel dan dapat digunakan sebagai metode untuk mendapatkan gambaran total biaya produksi yang paling kompetitif dari beberapa sumber.  Analisis juga menyimpulkan bahwa variabel eksternalitas turut mempengaruhi kenaikan total biaya produksi biodiesel hingga 14%. Hasil analisis profitabilitas menyatakan bahwa pasokan biomasa alga untuk produksi biodiesel lebih terjamin dan berkelanjutan dibandingkan biomasa sawit karena kendala teknis dan non teknis pada produksi biomasa alga lebih mudah diatasi selain itu juga keunggulan perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.

 

ABSTRACT

The high cost of biodiesel production was to be an obstacle conversion to biodiesel fuel including Indonesia due to anticipate the energy crisis. The high cost of production due to the variable cost of production has not fully comparable reflect the overall potential contained in biodiesel. Potential biodiesel belonging to the commodity nature of the environment such as renewable biomass, low in land use, and environmentally friendly should be included in the calculation in order to obtain an objective comparison of the calculations.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding commodities to the structure of the production cost of biodiesel between palm oil and algal oil. Estimated value of the commodity by the method of benefit transfer method shows the value used is the approach gains willingness to pay (WTP). Environmental commodity values referenced from the calculation software Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS) version 2000. For the case of Indonesia, the commodity value of the elasticity was infered EPS basis of comparison of income per capita of Sweden and Indonesia.The results stated that the analysis of life cycle costing (LCC) applied by adding variable externalities can provide detailed information about the composition of biodiesel production costs and can be used as a method to get a total picture of the most competitive production costs from several sources. The analysis also concluded that the externality variables also affect the total cost of biodiesel production by up to 14%. Profitability analysis stated that the algal biomass for biodiesel production more secure and sustainable than palm biomass due to technical and non-technical constraints on the production of algal biomass more easier to treat but it also advantages role in GHG mitigation that helped widen the opportunities as the main ingredient of biodiesel in the futur 


Keywords


life cycle costing; eksternalitas; biodiesel; minyak sawit; alga; bahan bakar; bahan bakar terbarukan; life cycle costing; externality; biodiesel; palm oil; algae; fuel; renewable fuel



References

Cahyono, S.A., Hariyadi, B., Yiliantoro, D. 2009. Nilai Guna Tak Langsung Pengelolaan DAS Grindulu. Prosiding Ekspose Hasil Penelitian dan Pengembangan. Balai Penelitian Kehutanan, Solo. Chisti, Y. 2007. Biodiesel from Microalgae. Biotechnol Adv., 25. 294–306. Conner, D.O. 2001. Estimating Ancillary Benefits of Climate Policy Using Economy Wide Models: Theory and Application in Developing Countries. Paris. Demirbas, A., dan Demirbas, M.F. 2011. Importance of Algal Oil As a Source of Biodiesel. Energy Convers Manage, 52. 163 – 170. Halim, R., Danquah, M.K., dan Webley P.A. 2011. Oil Extraction from Microalgae for Biodiesel Production. Biores Technol, 102. 178 – 185. Hutapea, M. 2012. Direktur Bioenergi, Direktorat Jenderal Energi Baru Terbarukan dan Konservasi Energi. http://www. indonesiafinancetoday.com/read/35907/Konsumsi-Biodiesel-Nasional-Diprediksi-Tidak-Capai-Target. diunduh 24 November 2012 jam 17.00. Jorquera O., Kiperstok A., Sales E.A., Embirucu M., dan Ghirardi M.L. 2010. Comparative Energy Life-Cycle Analyses of Microalgal Biomasa Production in Open Ponds and Photobioreactors. Bioresour Technol, 101. 1406–1413. Anonim, 2012. Handbook of Energy and economic Statistic of Indonesia. Center for Data and Information on Energy and Mineral Resources Kementerian Energi Sumberdaya Mineral, Jakarta, p121 Khoo, H.H., Tan, R.B.H., dan Tan, Z.H. 2009. GHG Intensities from The Life Cycle of Conventional Fuel and Biofuels. Air Pollution, 17. 329- 340. Lora, E.E.S., Palacio, J.C.E., Rocha, M.H., Renó, M.L.G., Venturini, O.J., dan del Olmo, O.A. 2010. Issues to Consider, Existing Tools and Constraints in Biofuels Sustainability Assessments. Energy, 36. 2097-2110. Manurung E.G.T. 2001. Analisis Valuasi Ekonomi Investasi Perkebunan Sawit. Nature resources management program. 195 hal. Nguyen, T.L.T., dan Gheewala, S.H. 2008. Fossil Energy, Environmental and Cost Performance of Ethanol in Thailand. J. Clean. Prod, 16. 1814-1821. Nguyen, T.L.T., Gheewala, S.H., dan Bonnet, S. 2008. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Produced from Cassava in Thailand”. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess,13. 564-573. Pachauri N. 2006. Value-Added Utilization of Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production: A Survey of Current Research Activities. An ASABE Meeting Presentation Paper Number: 066223. Pradiptyo . 2012. Konsumsi BBM Meningkat, Subsidi Membengak. http://www.antaranews. com/berita/307671/pengamat--konsumsi-bbm-meningkat-subsidi-membengkak 29 Mei 2013. Scott, S.A., Davey, M.P., Dennis, J.S., Horst, I., Howe, C.J., Lea-Smith, D J., dan Smith, A.G. 2010. Biodiesel from Algae: Challenges and Prospects. Current Opinion in Biotecnology, 21. 227–286. Suparmoko, M. 2009. Panduan dan Analisis Valuasi Ekonomi Sumber Daya Alam dan Lingkungan; Konsep, Metode Perhitungan dan Aplikasi, BPFE, Edisi pertama cetakan kedua,Yogyakarta. Silalertruksa, T., Bonnet, S., dan Gheewala, S.H. 2012. Life Cycle Costing and Externalities of Palm Oil Biodiesel in Thailand”. J. Cleaner Production, 28. 225-232 Anonim. 2011.Pendapatan-per-Kapita-Indonesia, UNDP, http://bisnis.news.viva.co.id/news/ read/261426-pendapatan-per-kapita-indonesia-us-3-716 Wilson, A.M., dan Hoehn, J.P. 2006. Valuing Environmental Good and Service Using Benefit Transfer: The State-of-The Art and Science. Ecol. Econ, 60. 335-342. www.xrate.com



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18540

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 848 | views : 509

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan



JML Indexed by:


Web
Analytics View My Stats