Penapisan Pendahuluan Berbagai Aksesi Padi (Oryza sativa L) Terhadap Serangan Hama Serangga dan Nematoda Parasit Tanaman

https://doi.org/10.22146/agrinova.54716

Siwi Indarti(1*), Taryono Taryono(2), Supriyanta Supriyanta(3), Ayu Suci Wulandari(4)

(1) Pusat Inovasi Agroteknologi (PIAT), Universitas Gadjah Mada Departemen Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Pusat Inovasi Agroteknologi (PIAT), Universitas Gadjah Mada Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Departemen Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kajian penapisan padi terhadap serangan organisma pengganggu tanaman merupakan tahapan penting untuk mendapatkan varietas unggul. Tiga puluh empat aksesi padi dilakukan penapisan untuk mengetahui tanggapannya terhadap serangan hama serangga dan nematoda parasit tanaman. Penelitian dilakukan pada lahan persawahan irigasi yang merupakan daerah endemik kedua golongan hama tersebut. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 blok sebagai ulangan. Pengamatan berupa gejala kerusakan tanaman yang diakibatkan oleh berbagai jenis hama serangga dan nematoda parasit tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan serangan hama walang sangit  pada semua aksesi padi yang diuji. Serangan wereng hijau ditemukan pada aksesi no UGM-F-00004 dan UGM-F-00008, sedangkan serangan penggerek batang hanya ditemukan pada aksesi nomor UGM-F-00005 dan UGM-F-00006. Jenis nematoda parasit tanaman yang ditemukan adalah Meloidogyne graminicola, Hirsmaniella oryzae, Helicotylenchus sp., dan Criconemoides sp. dengan tingkat populasi yang beragam. Aksesi nomor UGM-F-00028 paling rentan terhadap serangan nematoda M.graminicola. dengan populasi tertinggi > 600 nematoda per 100 g tanah dan 900 nematoda per 5 g akar.


Keywords


tanggapan, aksesi padi, hama serangga, nematoda parasit

Full Text:

PDF


References

Bezooijen, J. 2006. Methods and Techniques for Nematology. Wageningen.

Berliner J., Pokhare S.S., Adak T. and Guruprasannapandi. 2017. Rice Root Nematoda an emerging threat to irrigated rice. Indian Farming Indian Farming, 67(03): 31–32.

Elbary N. A. , Eissa M.F.M. & Youssef M.M.A. 2015. Pathogenicity of the rice root nematoda, Hirschmanniella oryzae to rice plants in relation to nematoda reproduction, plant growth, grain yield and biochemical changes. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (19): 2324–2334.

Gnamkoulamba A., Tounou A.K., Tchabi A., Kolombia Y.A., Agboka K., Tchao A., Adjevi A.K.M., Batawila K. 2018. Occurrence, abundance and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodas associated with rice (Oryza spp.) in different rice agroecosystems in Togo. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 12(2): 618-635.

IRRI [International Rice Research Institute]. 2004. Nematoda Parasite on Rice. The Philippines: DFID.

Jaiswal IRK, Singh KP, Mishra RK. 2011. A Technique for the detection of soil infestation with rice root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne graminicola at farmer’s field. Acad J Plant Sci. 4 (4):110–113.

Jones JT, Haegeman A, Danchin EGJ, Gaur HS, Helder J, Jones MGK, Kikuchi T, Manzanilla-López R, Palomares-Rius JE, Wesemael WML, Perry RN. 2013. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodas in molecular plant pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology, 14: 946–961.

Kogan. M. 1974. Plant Resistence in Pest Management. In Metcalf, R.L and W.H. Lukman (eds), New York.

Maung ZTZ, Kyi PP, Myint YY, Lwin T, De Waele D. 2010. Occurrence of the rice root nematoda Hirschmanniella oryzae on monsoon rice in Myanmar. Tropical Plant Pathology, 35: 003-010.

Mulyadi. 1994. Nematoda Puru Akar Padi (Meloidogyne graminicola) di D.I. Yogyakarta dan Usaha Pengendaliannya. Lembaga Penelitian UGM.

Mulyadi dan B. Triman. 1997. Pengaruh penggenangan dan pengeringan terhadap populasi dan siklus hidup nematoda puru akar padi (Meloidogyne graminicola). Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 3(1): 42-47.

Murti, R.H. & S. Trisnowati. 2001. Keragaan dan Kandungan Nutrisi Buah Tanaman Tomat Introduksi. Agrivet 5: 105-115.

Pathak MD, Khan ZR. Insect pests of rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, the Philippines, 1994.

Plowright, R. and J. Bridge. 1990. Effect of Meloidogyne graminicola (nematoda) on the establishment, growth and yield of rice cv. IR36. Nematologica 36: 81-89.

Prasad SS, Gupta PK, Kanaujia BL. Simulation study on yield loss due to Scirpophaga incertulas on semi deep water rice. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 2007; 15:491-492.

Rahman, S. A., Zain, S. N. M., Mat, M. Z. B. Sidam, A. K., Othman, R. Y. & Mohamed Z. (2014). Population distribution of plant parasitic nematodas of banana in Peninsular Malaysia.SainsMalaysiana, 43, 176–177.

Ravindra, H., M. Seghal and H.B. Narasimhamurthy. 2017. Rice Root–Knot Nematoda (Meloidogyne graminicola) an Emerging Problem 6(8): 3143-3171.

Soriano, I.R.S., Prot, J.‐C. and Matias, D.M. 2000. Expression of tolerance for Meloidogyne graminicola in rice cultivars as affected by soil type and flooding. J. Nematol. 32, 309– 317.

Thio B, Ouedraogo LS, Sanon E, Sankara P and Kiemde S. 2017. Les nématodes parasits associés au riz dans les trois (3) principales écologies rizicoles au Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 11: 1178-1189.

Udo IO, Nneke NE, Uyioata AM. 2011. Survey of plant parasitic nematodas associated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) in South Eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science, 5: 617-619.

Win Pa Pa, Kyi P.P, Maung ZTZ, Myint YY, and Waele DD. 2015. Comparison of the damage potential and yield loss of the rice root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne graminicola, on lowland and upland rice varieties from Myanmar. Russian Journal of Nematology, 23 (1): 53 – 72.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/agrinova.54716

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1536 | views : 4439

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.