The Effect of Power on Nitrate Synthesis and The Emission Intensities of Reactive Species Using Anodic Plasma Electrolysis

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.76790

Harianingsih Harianingsih(1*), Nelson Saksono(2), Eva Fathul Karamah(3), Zainal Zakaria(4)

(1) Departement of Chemical Engineering. Universitas Negeri Semarang. Kampus Sekaran. Semarang 50229. Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemical Engineering. Universitas Indonesia. Kampus Baru UI. Depok 16242. Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemical Engineering. Universitas Indonesia. Kampus Baru UI. Depok 16242. Indonesia
(4) Pusat Jaminan Kualiti. Universitas Malaysia Sabah. Jalan UMS 88400 Kota Kinibalu, Sabah, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Nitrates are used as fertilizer to fulfill nutrients for plants. Anodic plasma electrolysis technology can be an effective and environmentally friendly solution in nitrogen fixation into nitrate compounds. This research aimed to determine the effect of controlling voltage and power in nitrate synthesis using plasma electrolysis with air as the raw material injected at the anode. The material used is an electrolyte solution of 0.02 M K2SO4, the electrodes used are in the form of tungsten and stainless steel, and a nitrate reagent is used for the nitrate test. The results of the study showed that at 400 W, the optimal rate was 0.8 L men-1 with 1889 mg L-1 of nitrate formed. While at 500 W and 600 W, the optimal rate of 1 L men-1 with nitrate formed was 2213 mg L-1 and 2453 mg L-1. The emission intensities of reactive species N, N2*, N2+,•OH, •H, and •O at an optimal rate of 0.8 L men-1 400 W 700 V in 20139 au, 28540 au, 18023 au, 30863 au, 12547 au, 49800 au. The addition of air injection will increase the oxygen input into the plasma zone, which can produce reactive species •O and nitrogen produces reactive species N, N2*, N2+ forms NO. The formed NO compounds can be oxidized to NO2, and the reaction between NO2 and reactive species •OH forms nitrates. 


Keywords


Air Injection; Anodic Plasma Electrolysis; Emission Intensities; Nitrate; Reactive Species

Full Text:

PDF


References

Budikania, T. S., Afriani, K., Widiana, I., and Saksono, N., 2019. "Decolorization of azo dyes using contact glow discharge electrolysis". Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 7, 103466.

Chen, H., Yuan, D., Wu, A., Lin, X., and Li, X., 2021. "Review of low-temperature plasma nitrogen fixation technology," Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, 3, 201-217

Farawan, B., Yusharyahya, R. D., Gozan, M., and Saksono, N., 2021. "A novel air plasma electrolysis with direct air injection in plasma zone to produce nitrate in degradation of organic textile dye," Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 40, e13691.

Farisah, S., Karamah, E., and Saksono, N., 2021. "Air plasma electrolysis method for synthesis of liquid nitrate fertilizer with K2HPO4 and K2SO4 electrolytes," International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, 15, e01005.

Girard, F., Badets, V., Blanc, S., Gazeli, K., Marlin, L., Authier, L., and Arbault, S., 2016. "Formation of reactive nitrogen species including peroxynitrite in physiological buffer exposed to cold atmospheric plasma," Rsc Advances, 6, 78457-78467.

Ingels, R., and Graves, D. B., 2015. "Improving the efficiency of organic fertilizer and nitrogen use via air plasma and distributed renewable energy," Plasma Medicine, 5.

Ito, T., Uchida, G., Nakajima, A., Takenaka, K., and Setsuhara, Y., 2016. “Control of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in liquid by nonthermal plasma jet with controlled surrounding gas,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 56, 01AC06.

Jiang, S., Xie, Y., Li, M., Guo, Y., Cheng, Y., Qian, H., & Yao, W., 2020. “Evaluation on the oxidative stability of edible oil by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.” Food Chemistry,309,125714.

Li, S., Medrano, J. A., Hessel, V., and Gallucci, F., 2018. "Recent progress of plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation research: a review," Processes, 6, 248.

Liu, Y., Sun, B., Wang, L., and Wang, D., 2012. “Characteristics of light emission and radicals formed by contact glow discharge electrolysis of an aqueous solution,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 32, 359-368.

Luvita, V., Sugiarto, A. T., and Bismo, S., 2022. "Characterization of dielectric barrier discharge reactor with nanobubble application for industrial water treatment and depollution," South African Journal of Chemical Engineering, 40, 246-257.

Rouwenhorst, K. H., Engelmann, Y., van‘t Veer, K., Postma, R. S., Bogaerts, A., and Lefferts, L., 2020. “Plasma-driven catalysis: green ammonia synthesis with intermittent electricity,” Green Chemistry, 22, 6258-6287.

Rumbach, P., Witzke, M., Sankaran, R. M., and Go, D. B., 2013. “Decoupling interfacial reactions between plasmas and liquids: Charge transfer vs plasma neutral reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135, 16264-16267.

Sakakura, T., Takatsuji, Y., Morimoto, M., and Haruyama, T., 2020. "Nitrogen fixation through the plasma/liquid interfacial reaction with controlled conditions of each phase as the reaction locus," Electrochemistry, 88, 190-194.

Senesi, G. S., and Senesi, N., 2022. "Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy: Part I Historical perspectives," Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences .

Sen Gupta, S. K., 2017. "Contact glow discharge electrolysis: a novel tool for manifold applications," Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 37, 897-945.

Soloveichik, G., 2019. "Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia as a potential
alternative to the Haber–Bosch process," Nature Catalysis, 2, 377-380.

Tang, X., Wang, J., Yi, H., Zhao, S., and Gao, F., 2018. "Nitrogen fixation and NO conversion using dielectric barrier discharge reactor: identification and evolution of products," Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 38, 485-501.

Tsuchida, Y., Murakami, N., Sakakura, T., Takatsuji, Y., and Haruyama, T., 2021. “Drastically Increase in Atomic Nitrogen Production Depending on the Dielectric Constant of Beads Filled in the Discharge Space,” ACS omega, 6, 29759-29764.

Wang, J., Song, M., Chen, B., Wang, L., and Zhu, R., 2017a. “Effects of pH and H2O2 on ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate transformations during UV254nm irradiation: Implications to nitrogen removal and Analysis,” Chemosphere, 184, 1003-1011.

Wang, W., Patil, B., Heijkers, S., Hessel, V., and Bogaerts, A., 2017b. "Nitrogen fixation by gliding arc plasma: better insight by chemical kinetics modeling," ChemSusChem, 10, 2145-2157.

Wang, H., Wandell, R. J., Tachibana, K., Voráč, J., and Locke, B. R., 2018. "The influence of liquid conductivity on electrical breakdown and hydrogen peroxide production in a nanosecond pulsed plasma discharge generated in a water-film plasma reactor," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 52, 075201.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.76790

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 819 | views : 720

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering  (print ISSN 1655-4418; online ISSN 2655-5409) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada.