Drying Kinetics and Modelling of Convective Drying of Kedondong Fruit

https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.62932

Cheak Theng Ee(1), Yee Jian Khaw(2), Ching Lik Hii(3*), Choon Lai Chiang(4), Mohamad Djaeni(5)

(1) Future Food Malaysia, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(2) Future Food Malaysia, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(3) Future Food Malaysia, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(4) Foundation in Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
(5) Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH., Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kedondong is an underutilized fruit cultivated in a small scale in Malaysia and it contains nutrients that can be preserved through drying. The dried product can be sold as a premium fruit snack that could generate revenue for the producer. We studied the drying of peeled and unpeeled kedondong fruits using hot air (60-80°C). This study aims to investigate the drying kinetics (drying rates and effective diffusivities) of kedondong fruits and model the drying curves using thin layer models. Ten thin layer models were employed and solved using non-linear regression. Drying kinetics showed that only falling rate periods were observed, which implied that internal diffusion was the dominant mechanism for moisture release. Mathematical models showed that Modified Hii et al. (I) and (II) models were able to predict the drying curve well with the highest R2 (0.9992-0.9999), the lowest RMSE (8.0 x 10-4 - 2.5 x 10-3) and the lowest χ2 (4.0 ×10-5 - 2.0 x 10-4). Peeled  samples showed higher effective diffusivities (average 3.2 x 10-11 m2/s)  than unpeeled samples (average 2.7 x 10-11 m2/s). The activation energy was lower in peeled samples (25.8 kJ/mol) as moisture diffusion could occur more easily than unpeeled samples (32.1 kJ/mol). Results from this study provide kinetic information that can be used in scaling up of dryer and optimizing dryer performances.


Keywords


Drying rates; Diffusion; Effective diffusivity; Modeling, Thin layer model

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ajche.62932

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