Berkala Ilmiah Biologi <p><strong>BIB</strong>: Berkala Ilmiah Biology is a journal managed by the UGM Faculty of Biology. BIB publishes research articles and review articles in the fields of Functional Biology, Structure and Development, Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, as well as Environmental Biology and Biodiversity. The BIB Journal was first published (Vol.1 No. 1) in 1991 in book form up to Volume 12 No. 1 in 2013. BIB is published again online starting Volume 13 No 1 in April 2022. This journal is published three times a year in April, August and December with the numbers p-ISSN 0853-7240 and e-ISSN 2964-4429 . Papers can be submitted online by registering first via this website or by contacting us via email</p> <p>Secretariat:BIB: Berkala Ilmiah Biologi</p> <p>Faculty of Biology, UGM</p> <p>Jalan Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281</p> <p>bibjurnal.biologi@</p> <p>Telephone: 082144239028</p> Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada en-US Berkala Ilmiah Biologi 0853-7240 Parasitic Algae Cephaleuros on the Campus of the Faculty of Biology at the Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Cephaleuros belongs to the family Trentepohliaceae, order Trentepholiales, and division Chlorophyta, and acts as a parasite on higher plants. The presence of this alga is characterized by the appearance of spots on the surface of the leaf epidermis and generally does not cause serious problems. However, in certain cases, this algal infection can cause serious problems to the leaves, fruits and stems of plants, especially in humid environments. This research objective is to identify the species of Cephaleuros in the campus of the Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. In this research, sampling was conducted using a purposive random sampling method. The samples were then identified based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Two species of Cephaleuros, i.e. C. virescens and C. parasiticus, were identified as infesting several plants on the Faculty of Biology UGM campus. Each species is described and illustrated in the following article.</p> </div> </div> </div> Muhammad Rizky Airlangga Wibisono Rifat Rizki Adi Nugroho Della Putri Syalom Japareng Lulang Ludmilla Untari Copyright (c) 2023 Ludmilla Untari 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 14 3 1 9 10.22146/bib.v14i3.10315 Bacteria Analysis in the Ciwalen River Garut using Next Generation Sequencing of 16S Ribosomal RNA <p>The Ciwalen River flows through Garut, which is bordered by hundreds of leather tanning enterprises and community toilet waste. The purpose of this research is to analysis bacteria in Ciwalen river water using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) method of the 16s ribosomal RNA gene. The primers utilized are the V1-V9 primers for the 16s rRNA sequence, which will amplify the entire length of the rRNA gene and allow for species identification. The data revealed that there were 104,000 reads, 150,232,539 bases, and 81,761 bacterial species. <em>Proteiniclasticum ruminis</em>, <em>Fusibacter ferrireducens</em>, <em>Fusibacter fontis</em>, <em>Fusibacter tunisiensis</em>, <em>Paludibacter propionicigenes</em>, <em>Arcobacter cloacae</em>, <em>Alishewanella jeotgali</em>, <em>Thiovirga sulfuroxydans</em>, <em>Pseudomonas fluvialis</em>, and <em>Thauera mechernichensis</em> are the main bacterial species. In this study, another bacteria, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, was also found which is known to degrade heavy metals, Cr, Pb and Cd. The profile of bacteria, as well as the presentation of their existence in this water sample, demonstrates the appropriateness of heavy metals from leather tannery waste in the Ciwalen river.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tati Kristianti Lida Amalia Copyright (c) 2023 Tati Kristianti Tati Kristianti 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 14 3 10 16 10.22146/bib.v14i3.10471 Distribution and Habitat Characteristics of the Green Tree Frog (Rhacophorus reinwardtii Schlegel, 1840) in East Java. <p>The IUCN Red List classifies the green tree frog (Rhacophorus reinwardtii) as a frog that is Least Concern. One study that has never been carried out in Indonesia concerns the spatial distribution of the green tree frog based on Geographic Information System (GIS) applications and the habitat characteristics in East Java. It is vital to map the spatial distribution of the green tree frog in East Java and identify its habitat characteristics because the amphibian diversity surveys that have been conducted so far are the only ones available. This study is quantitative descriptive in design, with studies of pertinent literature as supporting sources. Cruising and the Visual Encounter Survey (VES) method are the techniques employed. A Geographic Information System (GIS) application is utilized in the computational method to create a spatial distribution analysis by gathering information on the locations of interactions with green tree frogs. Based on findings from studies conducted in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park Area (TNBTS), the Tancak Kembar Waterfall Area in Bondowoso Regency, and the Ironggolo Waterfall Area in Kediri Regency, there are 16 green tree frog meeting points recorded on the iNaturalist application for the Our Reptile Amphibian Observation Movement (GO-ARK) project and 3 points from the outcomes of field observations. In East Java, environmental factors such as altitude, slope, rainfall, NDVI, land cover, and proximity to rivers have a significant impact on how green tree frogs are distributed spatially. Although green tree frogs in East Java frequently forsake water bodies and choose to live in high-level plant types, they also frequently occupy a variety of water bodies. The green tree frogs discovered at the research location are categorized as favoring continuous habitats with boundaries for colony development.</p> Mochammad Yordan Adi Pratama Fatchur Rohman Agus Dharmawan Vivi Novianti Sri Rahayu Lestar Copyright (c) 2023 yordan pratama 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 14 3 17 22 10.22146/bib.v14i3.9349 Identification and Selection of Endophytic Fungi from Betel Leaf (Piper betle L.) as Cellulase Enzyme Producer <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> Endophytic fungi were known in bioethanol industries due to their role in secreting secondary metabolites in the form of cellulolytic enzymes, which were known to be superior to bacteria. The secretion of metabolic enzymes depended on the host they invaded. Herbal plants were recognized as habitats for various endophytic fungi. Betel leaf (<em>Piper betle</em> L.) was one such herbal plant known for its high metabolite content. The aim of this study was to identify endophytic fungi living on betel leaf, conduct cellulolytic tests on the identified fungi, and determine which fungi exhibited the highest cellulolytic activity. The study yielded three species of endophytic fungi from betel leaf: <em>Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum</em>, and <em>Colletotrichum coccodes</em>. All three samples showed positive results, producing cellulase enzymes characterized by the presence of a clear zone around the colonies. <em>F. oxysporum</em> was identified as the highest producer of cellulase enzymes, with a concentration of 0,033 U/ml.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dhia Salsabila Hakim Rina Sri Kasiamdari Copyright (c) 2023 Rina Sri Kasiamdari 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 14 3 23 31 10.22146/bib.v14i3.8714 The Ability of Lakum Air (Ludwigia octovalvis) as a Biofiltrator of Organic Content in Water Areas <p>Indonesian waters are often faced with pollution problems caused by excess of organic content such as nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub>-) and phosphate (PO₄³⁻). For this reason, in managing these pollutants biofiltration can be applied. Biofiltration is a method for treating waste biologically and plants can be applied in reducing the content of pollutants Biofiltration can be done using. Therefore, we introduced “Lakum Air” plant (<em>Ludwigia octovalvis</em>) as biofiltrator for reducing organic content of nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub>-) and phosphate (PO₄³⁻). <em>L. octovalvis</em> were cultivated in media with addition of NO<sub>3</sub>- and PO₄³⁻ 10 mg/L respectively. The results displayed <em>L. octovalvis</em> in NO<sub>3</sub>- possessed an average reduction ith efficiency of 0% for 2 weeks contact time and 0.5% for 4 weeks. At the same time in PO₄³⁻, <em>L. octovalvis</em> possessed an average reduction with efficiency of 35% for 2 weeks contact time and 58% with 4 weeks. Moreover, <em>L. octovalvis</em> can absorb NO<sub>3</sub>- with an average of 2.99 mg/L in 2 weeks contact time and 5.92 mg/L in 4 weeks. Likewise,<em> L. octovalvis</em> absorb PO₄³⁻ with an average of 4.72 mg/L for 2 weeks contact time and 6.66 mg/L for 4 weeks.</p> Rony Irawanto Nadila Wulan Cahyani Aunurohim Tutik Nurhidayati Edwin Setiawan Copyright (c) 2023 Setiawan Edwin 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 14 3 32 40 10.22146/bib.v14i3.10136 Fixative Solution for Macromolecules in Histological Preparations <p>The fixation process is subjected to preserve cells, tissues, and their components so that the structure can be maintained as their alive condition and prevent autolysis. This literature review purpose to determine the appropriate use of fixative solutions for several macromolecules, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. The literature review data is obtained form the secondary data included books, journals, or articles which discussed about fixative solutions without a limitation on the year of publication. The databases were sourced from Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, Science Direct, SpringerLink, Research Gate, and Nature. The keywords for the book search were tissue processing, pathology, and histology. Keywords for searching journals or articles were protein fixation, formaldehyde fixation lipids, fixatives for nucleic acids, Glyo-Fixx fixatives, mercury chloride fixative lipids, formalin-fixed carbohydrates, and ethanol or methanol for fixative lipids. Based on the literature review conducted, it can be concluded that the use of fixative solutions is according to the macromolecules to be observed.</p> Hayu Swari Alimi Ria Vena Septhay Sari Tia Apriliyani Ardaning Nuriliani Bambang Retnoaji Hendry Saragih Zuliyati Rohmah Copyright (c) 2023 Hayu Swari Alimi, Ria Vena Septhay Sari, Tia Apriliyani, Ardaning Nuriliani, bambang retnoaji, hendry saragih, Zuliyati Rohmah 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 14 3 41 49 10.22146/bib.v14i3.6531