Berkala Ilmiah Biologi <p><strong>Berkala Ilmiah Biologi</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> merupakan jurnal yang dikelola oleh Fakultas Biologi UGM. BIB menerbitkan artikel hasil penelitian dan review artikel di bidang Biologi Fungsional, Struktur dan Perkembangan, Bioteknologi dan Biologi Molekuler, serta Biologi Lingkungan dan Biodiversitas. Jurnal BIB pertama kali terbit (Vol.1 No. 1) pada tahun 1991 dalam bentuk buku hingga Volume 12 No. 1 pada tahun 2013. BIB terbit kembali secara <em>online</em> mulai Volume 13 No 1 pada bulan April 2022. Jurnal ini terbit tiga kali dalam setahun pada bulan April, Agustus, dan Desember dengan nomor ISSN 0853-7240. Paper dapat disubmit secara online dengan melakukan registrasi terlebih dahulu melalui website ini atau dapat menghubungi kami via email<br></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Sekretariat:</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">BIB: Berkala Ilmiah Biologi<br>FAKULTAS BIOLOGI, UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA<br>Jalan Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281<br><br>Telepon: 082144239028</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada en-US Berkala Ilmiah Biologi 0853-7240 Morphological Characterization, Ultrastructure, and Fertility Test of Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) Pollen <p>Melinjo (<em>Gnetum gnemon</em> L.) is the only species of the genus <em>Gnetum </em>that is quickly grown and cultivated in Indonesia. Melinjo is also an economically valuable plant, and the most famous product is emping as a potential small industrial sector commodity and brightly projected in the development of non-oil and gas exports. However, taxonomic studies of pollen morphology of Melinjo are rare, and the pollen fertility needs to study to increase Melinjo production and answer the demand for seeds.&nbsp;&nbsp; Morphological characterization can be used for taxonomic studies such as The Pollen Dispersal Units (PDUs), polarity, shape, symmetry, apertura, and skulptur (ornamentation) (Hasanuddin, 2018). Melinjo pollen has a level of germination (if it did without treatment pra-germination) only 1 – 2% during six months, and reach 100% during 12 months (World Agroforesty, 2021). Further, if pollen is saved in an organic liquid, it can increase the level of germination during 11 weeks to reach 80,63% (Kairani, 2010). The experiment aimed to study pollen morphology, ultrastructure, and fertility of pollen Melinjo.&nbsp; Pollen morphology, ultrastructure, and fertility were carried out by removing the blooming strobilus at branch Melinjo trees. Acetylysis method is used to observe the pollen morphology, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to observe exin ornamentation, and aperture, and tetrazolium staining method is used for fertility test of Melinjo pollen.</p> Qori Nur Fauziah Siti Susanti Copyright (c) 2022 Qori Nur Fauziah, Siti Susanti 2022-08-09 2022-08-09 13 2 1 12 10.22146/bib.v13i2.4380 Effect of Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Formation on Various Substrate Variations and Combinations <p>Cellulose is one of the most abundant polymers on the earth's surface and is often used as the main raw material in various industries. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is an organic compound produced by certain types of bacteria with various variations and combinations of substrates, including coconut water, rice soaking water, tomatoes, and a mixture of tomato-rice water, coconut-tomato water, and coconut water-rice water. This study aims to determine the optimization of BC formation in various variations and combinations of substrates with organoleptic and physical tests on each sample. This study used experimental methods on each substrate and analyzed descriptively qualitatively. The formula for making BC was 50 mL of each substrate, 5 grams of sugar, 2 grams of ZA (ammonium sulfate), 2 grams of glacial acetic acid, and 2 mL of starter (<em>Acetobacter xylinum</em>). The results of this study obtained organoleptic BC by 90% of panelists liked it, and 10% of panelists disliked it. Meanwhile, the best optimization of BC production obtained the highest thickness and yield on the coconut-rice water substrate treatment of &nbsp;2.3 cm and &nbsp;80% yield, the highest water content on the coconut water, coconut-tomato water, and coconut-rice water substrate treatments, respectively, each of 97% &nbsp;and the highest fiber content in rice water, tomato water, and tomato-rice water substrates were 3% each.</p> Siti Assyifa Liany Wilda Syafira Adelia Putri Anis Uswatun Khasanah Copyright (c) 2022 Anis Uswatun Khasanah 2022-08-26 2022-08-26 13 2 13 20 10.22146/bib.v13i2.4396 Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Embryo Development of Wader Pari Fish (Rasbora lateristriata Bleeker, 1854) <p>Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide which is used to control leaf pests and soil pest insects. The insecticide chlorpyrifos works by disrupting the insect's nervous system. The use of insecticides on vegetable crops is generally more intensive than on other food crops so the negative impact on the biotic and abiotic environment becomes greater. The purpose of this study was to determine the negative impact of chlorpyrifos exposure with concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 ppm on the embryonic development of Wader pari (<em>Rasbora lateristriata</em>). The results of observations at 24 and 48 hours showed that there were abnormalities in the development of the Wader pari’s embryo at the concentration of 0,1, 1 and 10 ppm, indicating that chlorpyrifos causes malformations in the form of defects in the development of the embryo of Wader pari fish.</p> Ascarti Adaninggar Anita Restu Puji Raharjeng Larasshita Putri Adhitya Sani Jessy Octavia Harahap Della Blatama Sandi Francisco Pratama Ardaning Nuriliani Bambang Retnoaji Hendry Tri Sakti SG Saragih Copyright (c) 2022 Ascarti Adaninggar, Anita Restu Puji Raharjeng, Larasshita Putri Adhitya Sani, Jessy Octavia Harahap, Della Blatama, Sandi Francisco Pratama, Ardaning Nuriliani, Bambang Retnoaji, Hendry Tri Sakti SG Saragih 2022-08-26 2022-08-26 13 2 21 31 10.22146/bib.v13i2.4766 Explant Sterilization Technique Castanopsis argentea (Blume) A.DC. with the addition of Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) In Vitro <p>Castanopsis argentea (Blume) A.DC. has the local name saninten. This plant is one of the woody plants that has the potential to be developed because it is beneficial for wildlife to nest and is used in reforestation. The seeds of this plant can be used for food by boiling and burning. This plant must be preserved so that it does not become extinct. However, the propagation, so it must use the technique of propagation through tissue culture. This study aims to determine the best sterilization technique for in vitro culture of C. argentea. Eight methods of explant sterilization have been carried out in this study. Methods 1-4 do not use ascorbic acid immersion, while methods 5-8 use the addition of ascorbic acid. Based on observations, it is known that the best sterilization is in the 8th method because the level of contamination and browning is lower than other methods, namely on the fifth day after planting only 20%. The 8th method is graded sterilization. In graded sterilization, explants were gradually immersed in 10% NaOCl, 20% NaOCl, and 30% NaOCl, respectively. Multilevel sterilization is the most effective method of sterilization to reduce contamination and browning. Ascorbic acid acts as an antioxidant and reduces contamination in the enzymatic browning reaction. The combination of sterile substances, time, sequence, and method of immersion affects the sterility of explants.</p> Syifara Chika Lily Ismaini Dian Triastari Armanda Copyright (c) 2022 Syifara Chika 2022-08-26 2022-08-26 13 2 32 41 10.22146/bib.v13i2.4692 The role of indigenous lactic acid Bacteria Genus Lactobacillus in the fermentation process of Durian (Durio zibethinus) for Tempoyak production <p style="font-weight: 400;">Durian (<em>Durio zibethinus</em>) is a type of fruit included in the climacteric fruit, so it needs processing to have a longer shelf life. One of the processed durian fruits is tempoyak. Tempoyak is a traditional fermented durian food well known around Kalimantan and Sumatra. Tempoyak is made from durian, which usually has a good level of maturity. The distinctive aroma and semi-solid texture of tempoyak are produced by the fermentation process by bacteria. Tempoyak processing has involved adding a bit of salt and indigenous lactic acid bacteria, one of which is the bacteria genus <em>Lactobacillus,</em> such as <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> and <em>Lactobacillus curvatus</em>. This study aimed to determine the role of lactic acid bacteria from the genus <em>Lactobacillus</em> in the fermentation process of durian into tempoyak, to determine the potential of bacteria from the genus <em>Lactobacillus</em> in other respects, and to determine the health benefits of tempoyak. This research was conducted using a literature study method with several stages, namely article searching, article selection, data synthesis, and ending with report generation. From the literature search, it can be seen that indigenous bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus are found in fermented durian fruit. <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> and <em>Lactobacillus curvatus</em> are species of the genus <em>Lactobacillus</em> that can ferment sugar into lactic acid and are usually used in fermented agricultural products and livestock products. <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> producing lactic acid is amylolytic because it can directly convert starch to form lactic acid. <em>Lactobacillus curvatus</em> has various functions related to carbohydrate utilization and bacteriocin production, enabling fermentative and antibacterial properties. Tempoyak can be beneficial for digestive health and has the potential to increase the body's immune system. The results obtained prove that the indigenous bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus from tempoyak play a role in the durian fermentation process and have the potential as probiotics that are good for health.</p> Yunita Ayu Ardilla Krisna Wahyu Anggreini Tara Puri Ducha Rahmani Copyright (c) 2022 Yunita Ayu Ardilla, Krisna Wahyu Anggreini, Tara Puri Ducha Rahmani 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 13 2 42 52 10.22146/bib.v13i2.4619