Adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) in health workers who receive COVID-19 vaccination at Academic Hospital Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
COVID-19 is a new viral infection that has become a global pandemic, resulting in extremely high mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, including in Indonesia. Vaccination is one of the strategies for preventing COVID-19 infection promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The Indonesian government supports the implementation of vaccination and conducts mass vaccination as a strategy to overcome the pandemic in Indonesia. The high immunization coverage resulted in increased use of vaccines, and events following immunization (AEFI) also increased. Reports on follow-up AEFI are needed as government policy references and information for the public. This study aims to describe the following events after the COVID-19 vaccine immunization and the incidence of the infection post vaccination. The study design was a cross-sectional study using primary and secondary data. The data were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Chi Square method by identifying association between demographic data and AEFI incidence. A total 131 respondents were included. Most respondents experienced AEFI after giving the first (77.1%) or second (71.9%) vaccine with the Sinovac vaccine. However, all reported mild AEFI. Most reported AEFIs were pain (48.8% and 49.6%), hungry (37.4% and 10.0%), and drowsiness (32.1% and 23.7%) after the first and the second vaccine. In conclusion, the prevalence of AEFI in the first and the second dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine is higher than that reported in the clinical trial study although the all AEFIs are considered as mild.
2. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Situation Report-51. World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200311-sitrep-51-covid 19.pdf?sfvrsn=1ba62e57_10. (7 November 2021).
3. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Weekly Epidemiological Update. World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/covid-19-weekly epidemiological-update. (7 November 2021).
4. World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/indonesia/news/novel-coronavirus/situation-reports. 2020.
5. Kassianos GC. Immunization Childhood and Trame Health.Edisi ketiga., London: Blackwell Science, 1996.
6. Frequently Asked Question Seputar Pelaksanaan Vaksinasi COVID-19. Available from: https://kesmas.kemkes.go.id/modul/unduhan. 2021.
7. BPOM. Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Coronavac. 2021.
8. MUI. Komisi Fatwa MUI Pusat Menetapkan Vaksin Covid-19 Produksi Sinovac Halal dan Suci. Available from: https://mui.or.id/berita/29405/komisi-fatwa-mui-pusat-menetapkan-vaksin-covid-19-produksi-sinovac-halal-dan-suci/. (7 November 2021)
9. Ranzani, O. T., Hitchings, M. D., Dorion, M., D’Agostini, T. L., de Paula, R. C., de Paula, O. F. P & Croda, J. Effectiveness of the CoronaVac vaccine in older adults during a gamma variant associated epidemic of covid-19 in Brazil: test negative case-control study. BMJ, 2021; 374.
10. Tanriover, M. D., Doğanay, H. L., Akova, M., Güner, H. R., Azap, A., Akhan, S., ... & Aksu, K. Efficacy and safety of an inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac): interim results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial in Turkey. The Lancet, 2021; 398(10296), 213-222.
11. World Health Organization Children Vaccine Initiative. Strategic planning. Managing opportunity of change a vision of vaccination for the 21th century., Geneva: Children’s Vaccine Initiative-WHO, 1997.
12. Hadinegoro, S. R. S. Kejadian ikutan pasca imunisasi. Sari Pediatri, 2016; 2(1), 2-10.
13. Zhang, Y., Zeng, G., Pan, H., Li, C., Hu, Y., Chu, K., ... & Zhu, F. Safety, tolerability, and imunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18–59 years: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2021; 21(2), 181-192.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (26 Agustus 2021). Delta Variant. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/delta-variant.html. (7 November 2021).
15. Emary, K. R., Golubchik, T., Aley, P. K., Ariani, C. V., Angus, B., Bibi, S., ... & Oxford COVID-19 Vaccine Trial Group. Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 (B. 1.1. 7): an exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 2021; 397(10282), 1351-1362.