The effect of aerosol suction distance during brushing brackets of orthodontic patients on the presence of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus

Andi Triawan(1*), Belladina Yusi Lasara(2)

(1) Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada Academic Hospital, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Dentists are one of the professions most at risk of infection transmission because dental care potentially produces many infectious aerosols for bacterial transmission. Using personal protective equipment and aerosol suction that meets the standards for dentists is vital to prevent cross-infection in patients in practice. This study aims to determine the effect of aerosol suction distance on the orthodontic patient bracket brushing process on total plate number and the presence of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus on the dentist’s face shield. The method used is the swab method on the face shield used by dentists after brushing orthodontic patient brackets with variations in the distance of aerosol suction to the oral cavity of 10 cm, 15 cm, and 20 cm. After 2 x 24 hours of incubation, the total plate count was calculated, and Streptococcus and Staphylococcus were identified by analyzing the characteristics of the growing colonies and executing the catalase test. The results showed that the lowest total plate number found on a face shield with aerosol suction distance of 10 cm from the oral cavity, 1.23 ± 0.01 CFU/cm2. The one-way ANOVA test obtained a significance value of p < 0.05, concluding that the variation of the aerosol suction distance affects the total face shield plate number. The presence of bacteria on the face shield was negative for Streptococcus and positive for Staphylococcus.


face shield; Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; total plate number

Full Text:



1. Mahmud KP, Ali SM, Sabir DK. Impacts of novel pandemic coronavirus (COVID-19)
outbreak on dental practice: a review of the current literature. Edorium J
Dent. 2020; 7: 100040D01PM2020 doi: 10.5348/100040D01PM2020RV

2. Sawhney A, Venugopal S, Babu R, Garg A, Mathew M, Yadav M, Gupta B, Tripathi S,
Aerosols how dangerous they are in clinical practice. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015; 9(4): ZC52–
ZC57. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12038.5835

3. Caranza FA, Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR. Carranza’s Clinical
Periodontology 11th ed. China: Saunders Elsevier; 2012.

4. Villani FA, Aiuto R, Paglia L, Re D. COVID-19 and dentistry: prevention in dental practice,
a literature review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(12): 1–12. doi: 10.3390/

5. Amtha R, Gunardi I, Dewanto I, Widyarman AS, Theodorea CF. Panduan dokter gigi dalam
era new normal. 2020; 1(1). doi: 10.32793/monograph.v1i1.601

6. Senpuku H, Fukumoto M, Uchiyama T, Taguchi C, Suzuki I, Arikawa K. Effects of extraoral
suction on droplets and aerosols for infection control practices. Dent J (Basel). 2021; 9(7):
80. doi: 10.3390/dj9070080

7. Chavis SE, Hines SE, Dyalram D, Wilken NC, Dalby RN. Can extraoral suction units minimize
droplet spatter during a stimulated dental procedure? J Am Dent Assoc. 2021; 152(2):
157–165. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2020.10.010

8. Persatuan Dokter Gigi Indonesia, Surat Edaran NO 2776/PB PDGI/III-3/2020 tentang
Pedoman Pelayanan Kedokteran Gigi Selama Pandemi Virus COVID-19; 2020. Available at

9. Cotrina AJJ, Marengo-Coronel N, Atoche-Socola KJ, Peña-Soto C, Arriola-Guillén LE. Effectiveness and recommendations for the use of dental masks in the prevention of COVID-19: a literature review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020; 1–6.
doi: 10.1017/dmp.2020.255

10. Depkes RI. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan RI No. 1204/ MENKES/ SK/ X/ 2004 tentang
Persyaratan Kesehatan Lingkungan Rumah Sakit, 2004, Depkes RI., Jakarta. Available at

11. Das M, Sabuj AAM, Haque ZF, Barua N, Pondit A, Mahmud MM, Khan MFR, Saha S.
Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from human dental infection. African
Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019; 13(14): 273-278 doi: 10.5897/AJMR2019.9076

12. Motegi N, Ikegami Y, Chiba M, Asano Y. How much Extra-Oral Suction (EOS) can prevent
dental aerosols. Dental Outlook. 2010; 115(6): 1-18.

13. Siswantomo DF, Triyono B. Designing Dental Extraoral Suction to Reduce the Risk of
Transmission and Spread of COVID-19 in Dentist Clinics. Bandung: Prosiding the 12th
Industrial Research Workshop and National Seminar; 2021.

14. Kumar PS, Geisinger ML, Ortiz GA. Methods to mitigate infection spread from aerosol-generating dental procedures. J Periodontol. 2021; 92: 784–792.
doi: 10.1002/JPER.20-0567

15. Hussein M, Al-Yaseen A, Alhamadi WW. Prevalence of staphylococcus aureus among
gingivitis in patient with orthodontic wires in Kufa City/Iraq. Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology.
2017; 14(1): 91-96.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 359 | views : 342


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Currently, Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia indexed by:







 View My Stats

time web analytics