The correlation of zinc serum levels and zinc intake with taste disorders in elderly patients at Babatan Public Health Center Bandung

Rahmatia Djou(1), Dewi Marhaeni Diah Herawati(2*), Tenny Setiani Dewi(3)

(1) Oral Medicine Residency Program, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java
(2) Division of Medical Nutrition Department of Public Heath, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java
(3) Oral Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java
(*) Corresponding Author


Taste disorders, which can be caused by various factors, including deficiency of zinc levels in the body and lack of zinc, generally occur in the elderly. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation between zinc serum levels and zinc intake, as well as the correlation between salivary volume, hypertension, and smoking with taste disorders in the elderly. This was analytical observational research with a cross-sectional method, which was conducted on 100 elderly patients, at Babatan Health Community Center, Bandung, Indonesia. The sampling was conducted through the following: interview about systemic disease history, drugs taken, and smoking habits; examination of oral cavity conditions; nutrition intake interviews; taste tests tests; and zinc serum measurement using the atomic absorption spectrometry. The data were obtained statistically. Among these one hundred elderly patients, 79 had low zinc serum levels and 94 had inadequate zinc intake. The average zinc serum in the elderly patients with taste disorders was 40.1 μg/dl, whereas those without taste disorders was 72.4 μg/dl, with a p value of <0.001. The average zinc intake in the elderly patients with taste disorders was 3.4, whereas in those without taste disorders was 6.0, with a p value of <0.027. Smoking correlated with taste disorders, while salivary volume and hypertension had no a correlation with taste disorders. There was correlation between zinc serum levels and zinc intake on taste disorders in the elderly patients. Smoking had a relationship with taste disorders in the elderly patients, whereas salivary volume and hypertension had no correlation with taste disorders in the elderly patients.


elderly; taste disorders; zinc nutrition; zinc serum

Full Text:



1. Pusat Data dan Informasi Kemenkes RI. Gambaran kesehatan lanjut usia di Indonesia.
Buletin Jendela Sata dan Informasi Kesehatan. 2013; (1): 1–17.

2. Razak PA, Richard KMJ, Thankachan RP, Hafiz KAA, Kumar KN, Sameer KM. Geriatric
oral health: a review article. J Int Oral Heal. 2014; 6(6): 110–116.

3. World Health Organization. Aging and Health. World Health Organization [Internet]. 2018;
Available from: fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health

4. Cavanaugh JC, Fields FB. Adult development and aging. 5th ed. USA: Wadsworth Thomson
Learning; 2006. 1–520.

5. Pflipsen M, Zenchenko Y. Nutrition for oral health and oral manifestations of poor nutrition
and unhealthy habits. Gen Dent. 2017; 65(6): 36–43.

6. Drewnoski A, Shultz J. Impact of aging on eating behaviors, food, choices, nutrition, and
health status. J Nutr Heal Aging. 2001; 5(2): 75–79.

7. Mocchegiani E, Romeo J, Malavolta M, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Diaz LE, Marcos A. Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly. Am Aging Assoc. 2013; 35(3): 839–860. doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9377-3

8. Heckmann SM, Hujoel P, Habiger S, Friess W, Wichmann M, Heckmann JG, Hummel T. Zinc
gluconate in the treatment of dysgeusia - a randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res. 2005; 84(1):
35–38. doi: 10.1177/154405910508400105

9. Meunier N, O’Connor JM, Maiani G, Cashman KD, Secker DL, Ferry M, Roussel AM,
Coudray C. Importance of zinc in the elderly: The ZENITH study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;
59(2): S1–4. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602286

10. Hidayat A. Seng (Zinc): Esensial bagi Kesehatan. J Kedokter Trisakti. 1999; 18(1): 19-27.

11. Femiano F, Lanza A, Buonaiuto C, Gombos F, Cirillo N. Burning mouth disorder (bmd) and
taste: a hypothesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008; 13(8): 470–474.

12. Imoscopi A, Inelmen EM, Sergi G, Miotto F, Manzato E. Taste loss in the elderly:
Epidemiology, causes and consequences. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2012; 24(6): 570–579.
doi: 10.3275/8520

13. Neumann L, Schauren BC, Adami FS. Taste sensitivity of adults and elderly persons. Rev
Bras Geriatr e Gerontol. 2016; 19(5): 797–808. doi: 10.1590/1809-98232016019.150218

14. Sykuła M, Stelmach A, Szacoń M, Kuśmierz K, Sutuła M, Rząca M, et al. Taste disorders in the elderly. J Educ Heal Sport. 2017; 7(12): 501–16.

15. Delilbasi C, Cehiz T, Akal U, Yilmaz T. Evaluation of some factors affecting taste perception in
elderly people. OHDMBSC. 2003; 4(6): 29–35.

16. Boyce JM, Shone GR. Effects of ageing on smell and taste. Postgrad Med J. 2006; 82(966):
239–241. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2005.039453

17. Menteri Kesehatan RI. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia No 28 Tahun
2019. 2019;1–33.

18. Hussain W, Mumtaz A, Yasmeen F, Khan SQ, Butt T. Reference range of zinc in adult
population (20-29 years) of Lahore, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2014; 30(3): 545–548.
doi: 10.12669/pjms.303.4027

19. Hotz C, Brown KH. International zinc nutrition consultative group (IZiNCG) technical
document assesment of the risk of zinc deficinecy in populations and option for its
control. Food Nutr Bull. 2004; 25(1 suppl2): S91–204.

20. Cabrera ÁJR. Zinc, aging, and immunosenescence: an overview. Pathobiol
Aging Age Relat Dis. 2015; 5(1): 25592. doi: 10.3402/pba.v5.25592

21. Hidayat A. Manfaat suplementasi seng (zinc) pada kelompok usia lanjut. J Kedokter Tisakti.
2002; 21(1): 40–46.

22. Brown KH, Hess SY, King JC, Peerson JM. Use of serum zinc concentration as an indicator
of population zinc status. Food Nutr Bull. 2007; 28(3): 403–429. doi: 10.1177/15648265070283S303

23. Parr H, Polito A, Istituto I, Stewart-knox BJ, Simpson EEA, Parr H, Rae G, Polito A, Intorre
F, Sanchez MA, Meunier N, O’Connor JM, Maiani G, Coudray C, Strain JJ. Taste acuity
in response to zinc supplementation in older Europeans. Br J Nutr. 2008; 99(1): 126–36.
doi: 10.1017/S0007114507781485

24. Sergi G, Bano G, Pizzato S, Veronese N, Manzato E. Taste loss in the elderly: Possible
implications for dietary habits. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 57(17): 3684–3689.
doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1160208

25. Chapman IMP. Nutritional disorders in the elderly. Med Clin North Am. 2006; 90(5): 887–
907. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2006.05.010

26. Ozeki I, Yamaguchi M, Suii H, Tatsumi R, Arakawa T, Nakajima T, Kuwata Y.

27. Hotz C. Dietary indicators for assessing the adequacy of population zinc intakes. Food
Nutr Bull. 2007; 28(3): 430–453. doi: 10.1177/15648265070283S304

28. Bhowmik D, Chiranjib, Kumar KPS. A potential medicinal importance of zinc in human health
and chronic diseases. Int J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2010; 1(1): 05–11.

29. Ikeda M, Ikui A, Komiyama A, Kobayashi D, Tanaka M. Causative factors of taste disorders
in the elderly, and therapeutic effects of zinc. J Laryngol Otol. 2008; 122(2): 155–160.
doi: 10.1017/S0022215107008833

30. Guan G, Mei L. A Case series: zinc deficiency as a potential contributor to oral dysgeusia.
Mod Approaches Dent Oral Heal Care. 2018; 2(5): 200–205. doi: 10.32474/MADOHC.2018.02.000146

31. Soni S, Chatuverdi A, Singh JP. Importance of zinc in human diet. Int J Heal Sci Res. 2017;
7(8): 462–467.

32. Sasano T, Satoh-kuriwada S, Kaneta N, Shoji N, Kawai M, Uneyama H. Incidence of taste
disorder and umami taste disorder among the Japanese Elderly and Youth. J Nutr Food Sci.
2012; 10(002): 1–5. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.S10-002

33. Heckmann JG, Heckmann SM, Lang CJG, Hummel T. Neurological aspects of taste
disorders. Arch Neurol. 2003; 60(5): 667–71. doi: 10.1001/archneur.60.5.667

34. Schiffman SS, Graham BG. Taste and smell perception affect appetite and immunity in the
elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000; 54(3): 54–63. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601026

35. Chéruel F, Jarlier M, Sancho-Garnier H. Effect of cigarette smoke on gustatory sensitivity,
evaluation of the deficit and of the recovery time-course after smoking cessation. Tob
Induc Dis. 2017; 15(1): 1–8.

36. Kale YS, Vibhute N, Belgaumi U, Kadshetti V, Bommanavar S, Kamate W. Effect of using
tobacco on taste perception. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2019; 8(8): 2699–2702.
doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_457_19


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 212 | views : 132


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Currently, Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia indexed by:







 View My Stats

time web analytics