Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) terhadap Staphylococcus aureus

https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.17498

H. Harsini(1*)

(1) Departemen Ilmu Biomaterial Kedokteran Gigi, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Antibacterial activity of cashew stembark (Anacardium occidentale Linn) on Staphylococcus aureus. Microbial activity acts as a sign of disruption of bacterial growth. The bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) contains phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and anacardic acid which have an activity as antimicrobial. One of the Gram positivebacteria in the oral cavity was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The aim of the study was to observe the bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew to a metal ion, i.e. Ca2+ and Kleakage from S aureus. This research used one ose bacteria S. aureus at a density of 10standard Brown as much as 10 mL and centrifuged at a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes. The filtrate discarded, pellets in the tube was washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0. Furthermore the ethanolic extract of the bark of the cashew stembark was added in the concentrations of 3.5% and 7% without any extract as a control, each of which was in 5 tubes, incubated in an incubator for 24 hours. The suspension was centrifused with a speed of 3500 rpm for 20 minutes prior to be filtered. Supernatant liquid was taken and measured absorbance using AAS. Data were analyzed using one way Anova p = 0.05. The results showed that leakage of Ca2+ was  at concentrations of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% were 2.42 ± 0.82; 32.87 ± 1.97; 49.10 ± 3.33; 66.73 ± 3.29, respectively while for the Kmetal was 15.28 ± 0.46; 606.36 ± 14.14; 895 ± 9.5; 1251 ± 11.54. Anova one way showed a significant effect (p <0.050) ethanolic extract of the bark of cashew against leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and Kat S aureus bacteria. LSD test showed a significant difference among all treatment groups. It was concluded that there was antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the cashew stembark on bacteria S. aureus based on leakage of metal ions Ca2+ and K+ The highest leakage of metal ions was at the concentrations of 7%.

 

ABSTRAK

Aktivitas antibakteri merupakan tanda terganggunya pertumbuhan bakteri. Kulit batang tanaman jambu mete (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) mengandung senyawa fenolik seperti flavonoid dan tanin serta asam anakardat yang memiliki aktivitas sebagai antibakteri. Salah satu bakteri gram positif dalam mulut yang patogen adalah Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri kulit batang jambu mete (anacardium occidentale Linn.) terhadap S.aureus yang ditandai dengan kebocoran ion logam. Penelitian menggunakan sebanyak 1 ose dengan kepadatan 10 CFL/mL disentrifuse dengan kecepatan 3500 rpm selama 20 menit. Filtrat dibuang, pellet dalam tabung dicuci menggunakan buffer fosfat pH 7,0. Ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete konsentrasi 3; 5 dan 7% serta tanpa ekstrak sebagai kontrol, masing-masing dalam 5 tabung, diinkubasi dalam inkubator goyang selama 24 jam. Suspensi kemudian disentrifuse dengan kecepatan 3500 rpm selama 20 menit lalu disaring. Cairan supernatan diambil diukur absorbansinya menggunakan AAS (Atomic absorption Spectroscopy). Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava satu jalur. Hasil menunjukkan kebocoran Ca2+ pada konsentrasi 0, 3, 5 dan 7% berturut-turut adalah 2,42 ± 0,82; 32,87 ± 1,97; 49,10 ± 3,3; 66,73 ± 3,29, sedangkan logam K+ adalah 15,28 ± 0,46; 606,36 ± 14,14; 895 ± 9,5; 1251 ± 11,54. Hasil analisis statistik Anava menunjukkan terdapat aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete. Hasil LSD menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antar seluruh kelompok perlakuan. Kesimpulan terdapat aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanolik kulit batang jambu mete terhadap S.aureus dilihat dari kebocoran ion logam Ca2+ and K+. Kebocoran tertinggi pada konsentrasi ekstrak 7%.

 



Keywords


antimicrobial activity; phenolic; metal ion leakage; cashew steambark (Anacardium occidentale L)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.17498

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