Perawatan Kandidiasis Pseuodomembran Akut dan Mukositis Oral pada Penderita Kanker Nasofaring yang Menerima Khemoterapi dan Radioterapi

https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.15421

S. Supriatno(1*), Goeno Subagyo(2)

(1) Program Studi Ilmu Kedokteran Gigi Klinik, Minat Studi Ilmu Penyakit Mulut, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Mulut, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Latar belakang: Terapi radiasi merupakan metode primer perawatan pasien kanker leher dan kepala. Perubahan funsional dan kerusakan jaringan oral menyebabkan timbulnya mukositia oral yang diikuti dengan kandidiasis oral. Tujuan: Melaporkan efek samping perawatan khemoterapi dan radioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring yang terjadi di rongga mulut berupa kandidiasis pseudomembran akut dan mukositis oral serta penatalaksanaannya. Kasus: Seorang laki-laki, 69 tahun, datang ke Bagian Gigi dan Mulut RSUP Dr. Sardjito, atas rujukan dari instalasi Penyakit Dalam., RSUP Dr. Sardjito, dengan keluhan sakit untuk menelan makanan dan mulutnya banyak bercak-bercak putih. Keluhan dirasakan satu minggu setelah dilakukan khemoterapi ke-3 dan radioterapi ke-9. Pasien didiagnosa kanker nasofaring (NPC) dengan klasifikasi T2N3M0. Pemeriksaan klinik menunjukkan adanya lapisan putih pada mukosa lidah, pipi, palatum, dan mukosa bibir. Seluruh mukosa mulut berwarna merah tua dan terdapat anguler cheilitis di kedua sudut bibir. Pasien diklasifikasikan menderita mukositis oral derajat 1. Penatalaksanaan: Menghilangkan jaringan nekrotik dan debris dengan berkumur larutan perhidrol 3% dan pemberian medikasi termasuk tablet nistatin 500.000 IU, betadin kumur, dan larutan perhidrol 3% selama 1 minggu. Saat reevaluasi, pasien sudah dapat menelan dan makan yang sedikit keras tanpa ada rasa sakit lagi. Pemeriksaan klinis didapatkan bercak putih di lidah, palatum, pipi dan bibir sudah tidak ada. Warna mukosa oral telah normal, OHI dan kondisi umum baik dalam 1 minggu pasca perawatan. Kesimpulan: Perawatan kandidiasis dan mukositis oral akibat kemoradioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring telah berhasil dan kondisi oral membaik. Pasien dapat mengunyah dan menelan makanan tanpa ada rasa sakit, dan hasil pengobatan yang diberikan pada pasien sesuai dengan harapan operator.

 

Background: Radiation therapy remains the primary method of treatment for patients with head and neck cancer. The tissue destruction and functional alterations in the oral cavity lead to the development of oral mucositis followed by oral candidiasis. Purpose: The aim of study was to report the side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment of nasopharyng cancer patient included acute pseudomembran candidiasis and oral mucositis, and its treatment. Case: 69 year old man, came to dental clinic, Sardjito hospital, as refered from Internal Medicine department, Sardjito hospital, with complained painful for food swallowing and found white spots at oral cavity. Chief complaint was detected one week after third chemotherapy and nine radiotherapy treatments. Nasopharyng cancer was diagnosed with T2N3M0 clasifiacation. Clinical examination showed white spots at tongue, buccal, palatal and lip mucosa. All of oral mucosa coloured bright-red and anguler cheilitis appeared at both lip angle. Patient was clasified (by WHO) to have oral mucositis with level 1. Management: removal of necrotic tissue and debris using perhidrol 3% solution, and also medication by nistatin tablet 500.000 IU, betadin gargle, and perhidrol 3% solution for 1 week. In control, patient feeled comfortable while food swallowing and could eat a slightly hard food without pain. Clinical examination revealed that white spot at tongue, buccal, palatal and lip mucosa was disappeared. Normal colour was found at all of oral mucosa. Also, oral hygiene and general condition were good in 1 week post treatment. Conclusion: Treatment of acute pseudomembran candidiasis and oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy of nasopharyng cancer patient was recovered. Patient could chew and swallow of food without painful, and results of treatment to this pastient gave us a satisfied.


Keywords


kanker nasofaring; kemoterapi; radioterapi; kandidiasis oral; mukositis; nasopharyng cancere; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; oral candidiasis; mukositis

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.15421

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