Perubahan morfologi sel HeLa setelah paparan ekstrak etanolik Curcuma longa

https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.11248

Suryani Hutomo(1*), Heni Susilowati(2), Yanti Ivana Suryanto(3), Chandra Kurniawan(4)

(1) Bagian Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Departemen Biologi Mulut, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Bagian Fisiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Prodi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Cell morphological changes on HeLa cells after Curcuma longa etanolik extract exposure. Curcuma is mostly found in the areas with tropical and sub-tropical climate, and is one of original plants of Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, curcuma can be found in almost all regions and areas. Curcumin, which is curcuma’s main constituent, is a potent anti oxidant. Previous studies reported that curcuma longa extract may decrease the growth of cancer cells by interfering with cell proliferation, and by causing the cell apoptosis; however, the mechanism of apoptosis remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Curcuma longa extract on the morphological change of HeLa cells, indicating the cell damage. HeLa cells (5x10⁴ cells/well) were cultured in complete RPMI 1640 overnight before stimulation. Etanol extract of Curcuma longa (50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 150 µg/ml) were added to the culture of HeLa cells and were incubated for 24 hours in antibiotic-free of culture medium. HeLa cells morphological analysis was performed under phase contrast microscope after haematoxilent eosin staining. Docsorubisin (0,5625 mg/ml) was used as positive control in this study. The results demonstrated that Curcuma longa extract caused cell morphological changes on HeLa cells indicated by cell shrinkage, lost contact with neighboring cells as the alteration of apoptotic cell death in most of cell population. The nuclei were dark as a result of their capability to absorb haematoxylene dye. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between controls and treatment groups. It was then concluded that Curcuma longa extract induced cell damage on HeLa cells in a way of cell shrinkage.


ABSTRAK

Kunyit (Curcuma longa) merupakan tanaman yang dapat tumbuh di daerah tropis dan sub tropis, serta merupakan tanaman asli Asia Tenggara. Di Indonesia, kunyit menyebar secara merata di seluruh daerah. Kurkumin yang merupakan unsur utama kunyit, merupakan antioksidan yang kuat. Beberapa penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa kunyit mampu menghambat pertumbuhan beberapa tipe sel kanker. Mekanisme anti-kanker kurkumin adalah dengan menghambat proliferasi sel. Penelitian terdahulu melaporkan bahwa ekstrak Curcuma longa menginduksi apoptosis pada sel HeLa, tetapi mekanisme kematian sel tersebut belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh ekstrak Curcuma longa pada perubahan morfologi sel HeLa, dimana perubahan morfologi merupakan parameter kerusakan sel. Sel HeLa (5x104 sel/well) dikultur dalam RPMI 1640 semalam sebelum stimulasi. Ekstrak etanol kunyit (50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 150 µg/ml) ditambahkan pada kultur HeLa dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam dalam medium tanpa antibiotik. Analisis morfologi sel HeLa dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroskop fase kontras setelah pewarnaan haematoksilen eosin. Doksorubisin (0,5625 µg/ml) digunakan sebagai kontrol positif induksi apoptosis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak Curcuma longa menyebabkan perubahan morfologi sel yang ditandai dengan semakin mengecilnya ukuran sel, hilangnya prosesus sitoplasmik sehingga sel berbentuk bulat, serta hilang kontak dengan sel lain yang merupakan ciri apoptosis pada sebagian besar sel HeLa. Nukleus tampak berwarna gelap karena peningkatan kapasitas penyerapan zat haematoksilen. Analisa statistik menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna antara kelompok kontrol positif dan negatif dengan kelompok stimulasi dalam jumlah sel yang mengalami perubahan morfologi menuju apoptosis. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak Curcuma longa mampu menginduksi perubahan morfologi sel HeLa yaitu berupa cell shrinkage.




Keywords


Curcuma longa extract; cell morphological change; HeLa cells

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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.11248

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