"Sorry, Darling": Apologizing in The Crown TV Series


Pradhana Ahmad Maulana(1), Tofan Dwi Hardjanto(2*)

(1) English Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) English Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


The present research investigates the realization of apologies in the TV series entitled The Crown. In doing so, the study attempts to identify and classify apology strategies employed by the characters in the series using the taxonomy proposed by Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1984). The collection of the apology data was done through observation of the series, starting from the first episode in the first season to the twentieth episode in the second season. The investigation has successfully identified and classified 45 apologies. From a total of 45 apologies found, 33 (73.4%) were classified as direct realizations (27 or 60% as standalone IFIDs and 6 or 13.3% as IFID combinations). Indirect apology realizations, however, were relatively rare with only 12 (26.6%) occurrences in total. The explanation of situation was found to be the most commonly used indirect strategy with six (13.3%) instances. The results seem to suggest that the characters in the series prefer direct strategies in apologizing in English.


apology; apology strategies; direct apology; speech act; The Crown

Full Text:

164-177 PDF


Afghari, A. (2007). A sociopragmatic study of apology speech act realization patterns in Persian. Speech Communication, 49, 177-185.

Aijmer, K. (1996). Conversational routines in English: Convention and creativity. London: Longman.

Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. London: Oxford University Press.

Austin, J. L. (1975). How to do things with word. (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Aydin, M. (2013). Cross cultural pragmatics: A study of apology speech acts by Turkish speakers, American English speakers and advance nonnative speakers of English in Turkey (Unpublished master's thesis). Minnesota State University, Mankato, U. S. A.

Bergman, M. L., & Kasper, G. (1993). Perception and performance in native and nonnative apology. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 82-107). New York: Oxford University Press.

Blum-Kulka, S. & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5(3), 196-213.

Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Brown, P. & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chaemsaithong, K. (2009). A historical pragmatic study of apologies: A case study of the Essex Pauper Letters (1731-1837). Manusya: Journal of Humanities, 17, 84-99.

Cody, M. J., & McLaughlin, M. L. (1987). Interpersonal accounting. In H. Giles & W. P. Robinson (Eds.), The handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 227-255). London: Wiley.

Cutting, J. (2002). Pragmatic and Discourse. London: Routledge.

Darwish (2014). Gender differences in the usage of apology : A case study of native speakers of English in Jordan's private schools. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.

Deutschmann, M. (2003). Apologising in British English. Umea: Umeå University.

Fraser, B. (1981). On apologizing. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Conversational routine: Explorations in standardized communication situations and prepatterned speech (pp. 259-271). New York: Mouton.

Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in public: Microstudies of the public order. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Holmes, J. (1990). Apologies in New Zealand English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hurford, J. R., Heasley, B., & Smith, M. B. (2007). Semantics: A coursebook (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kador, J. (2009). Effective apology: Mending fences, building bridges, and restoring trust. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler Publishers.

Majeed, A. & Janjua, F. (2014). Apology strategies and gender: A pragmatic study of apology speech acts in Urdu language. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 2(3), 54-61.

Meier, A.J. (1998). Apologies: What do we know? International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 215-231.

Morgan, P. (2016). The Crown [Television series]. Los Gatos, CA: Netflix.

Morgan, P. (2017). The Crown [Television series]. Los Gatos, CA: Netflix.

Olshtain, E. (1989). Apologies across languages. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House & G. Kasper (Eds.), Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies (pp. 155-173). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.

Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A. (1983). Apology: A speech act set. In N. Wolfson, & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp. 18-36). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Owen, M. (1983). Apologies and remedial interchanges: A study of language use in social interaction. Berlin, New York and Amsterdam: Mouton.

Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1976). A classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 5(1), 1-23.

Shahrokhi, M. (2012). Intensification of apology strategies in Persian: A politeness perspective. Journal of Language, Culture, and Translation (LCT), 1(1), 49–70.

Slavianova, L. (2012). Various means of expressing modality in the speech stereotypes of apologies in contemporary English. Scientific Proceedings of RU 51(1). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275021992_Various_Means_of_Expressing_Modality_in_the_Speech_Stereotypes_of_Apologies_in_Contemporary_English.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints and apologies. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ugla, R. & Jafre, M.. (2016). A study of the apology strategies used by Iraqi EFL university students. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 5(32). doi: 10.11591/ijere.v5i1.4519.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/lexicon.v6i2.53162

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2098 | views : 1755


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Pradhana Ahmad Maulana, Tofan Dwi Hardjanto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon Office

English Department
Faculty of Cultural Sciences,
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Soegondo Building, 3rd Floor, Room 306
Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
Telephone: +62 274 513096
Email: lexicon.fib@ugm.ac.id

ISSN: 2746-2668 (Online)

Web Analytics View Stats

Creative Commons License
LEXICON is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon is indexed in


About UsSubmissionIssuePoliciesReview