Elya Aprilia Ramadhani(1*)

(1) Fakultas Ilmu Budaya
(*) Corresponding Author


  This research entitled “Expressions of Disagreement in English by Indonesian learners of English and Australian learners” intends to study and compare the similarity and difference between Indonesians and native speakers of English in expressing disagreements. This research also examines the choice of semantic formulae that both groups used toward different interlocutors influenced by familiarity, status and age. To collect data, questionnaires in the form of DCT (Discourse Completion Task) are used. This research involves 40 respondents consisting of 20 Indonesian students of English Department, 20 Australian students from Indonesian Language and Culture Learning Service (INCULS) program, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, UGM. The data are analyzed by using Beebe’s Classification. Both groups share some similarities and differences in expressing disagreements. Both groups employ a similar set of strategy (semantic formulae) but they differ from each other in the ranks and frequencies of semantic formulae used. There are evidences of mostly semantic formulae used, ranks and frequencies of those in relation to the degree of familiarity, status difference and age difference. 


disagreement; semantic formulae; speech act; politeness; culture

Full Text:



Akmajian, Adrain. 1979. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. London: MIT Press.

Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Things With Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Penelope and Stephen Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burhanudin, Ahmad. 2006. "A Comparative Study on Refusals in English by Indonesians Learners and Native Speakers of English ." Unpublished Material.

Chen, Miao-tzu. 2006. An Interlanguage Study of The Speech Act of Disagreement made by Chinese EFL Speakers in Taiwan. 18 May 2011.

Crystal, David. 1980. A First Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 29 May 2011.

Finegan, Edward. 1992. Language, its Structure and Use. Marrickville: Harcout Brace Jovanovich Group Ply Ltd.

Geoffrey, Leech. 1993 Principle of Pragmatics. New York: Longman. 1 January 2012.

Huong, Kieu Thi Thu. 2006. 18 May 2011.

Mey, Jacob L. 1993. Pragmatics-An Introduction. Cambridge Massachusetts: Blackwell Publisher.

Liang, Guodong and Han Jing. 2005. A Contrastive Study on Disagreement Strategies for Politeness between American English and Mandarin Chinese. 18 May 2011.

Mulyani, Apri. 2009. "Expressions of Disagreement Made by The English Department and Non English Department Student: a Pragmatics Study." Unpublished Material.

Nadar, F.X. 2009. Investigating Sociopragmatics and Cultural Transfer in the Production of Refusals. Yogyakarta: Unit Penerbitan Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, UGM.

Nadar, F.X. 2009. Pragmatik dan Penelitian Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Rasekh, Vahid Parvaresh and Abbas Eslami. 2009. CLCWeb: Comparative Literature andCulture. May 2011.

Searle, John. 1969. Speech Acts: An Essay i Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, John. 1975. Indirect Speech Acts. In P. Cole and J. Morgan (Eds). Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press.

Verschueren, Jeff. 1999. Understanding Pragmatics. London: Arnold. 10 April 2012.

Xuehua, Wu. 2006. "A Study of Strategy Use in Showing Agreement and Disagreement to Others Opinion." Celea Journal: 7-29.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1324 | views : 1001


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2012 Elya Aprilia Ramadhani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon Office

English Department
Faculty of Cultural Sciences,
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Soegondo Building, 3rd Floor, Room 306
Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
Telephone: +62 274 513096

ISSN: 2746-2668 (Online)

Web Analytics View Stats

Creative Commons License
LEXICON is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon is indexed in


About UsSubmissionIssuePoliciesReview