The Use of Request Strategies in the Movie "The Proposal"

Desi Wulan Sari(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


This research aims to investige the requests used in the movie The Proposal. In particular, it attempts to identify and classify the request head acts and external modification delivered by the characters in the movie. The data used in this research are utterances containing request strategies. These data, then, are classified and analyzed using the theory of request strategies proposed by Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1984). The results show that there are 75 utterances containing request strategies, classified based on nine types of the request head acts and seven types of external modifications that modify the head acts. It is also found that direct request by means of mood derivable is the most preferred strategy in expressing request head act. Futhermore, precusors is the external modification most commonly used by the characters to get the hearer‟s attention and to fulfill something requested.


context; speech acts; request head acts; external modifications

Full Text:



Austin, John Langshaw. 1962. How to Do Things with Words. London: Oxford University Press

Blum-Kulka, Shoshana. 1987. Indirectness and Politeness in Requests: Same or Different?. In Journal of Pragmatics 11.131-146. North-Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

Blum-Kulka, Shoshana and Elite Olshtain. 1984. Requests and Apologies: A Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP). In Applied Linguistics, 5(3), 196-213

Blum-Kulka, Shoshana et al. 1989. Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood: Ablex Publishing.

Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Cutting, Joan. 2002. Pragmatics and Discourse: A Resource Book for Students. New York: Routledge

Fathoni, Anni‟mah. 2009. Politeness in Making Request: A Brief Pragmatic Study Among Students of Immersion Classes in SMP 1 Bantul. Unpublished Graduating Paper. Yogyakarta: UGM

Félix-Brasdefer, J. César. 2005. Indirectness and Politeness in Mexican Requests. In Selected Proceedings of the7th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, ed. David Eddington, 66-78. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project

Finegan, Edward. 1992. Language: Its Structure and Use. Marickville: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Group Pty Ltd

Holmes, Janet. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistic. New York: Longman Group Limited

Hornby, A. S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press

Kreidler, C.W. 1998. Introducing English Semantic. London: Routledge

Leech, Geoffrey. 1983. Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman Inc

Levinson, Stephen C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Márquez-Reiter, Rosina. 2000. Linguistic politeness in Britain and Uruguay: A Contrastive Study of Requests and Apologies. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins

Memarian, Parinaz. 2012. The Use of Request Strategies in English by Iranian Graduate Students: A Case Study. Gazimağusa, North Cyprus: Eastern Mediterranean University

Mey, Jacob L. 1993. Pragmatics: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing

Nadar, FX. 1998. Indonesian Learner’s Requests in English: A Speech-Act Based Study. Humaniora 9. 61-69

_________. 2009. Pragmatik dan Penelitian Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Ghra Ilmu.

Searle, John R. 1969. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. London: Syndics of the Cambridge University Press

Shogli, Masoumeh and Saeideh Ahangari. 2011. Investigating Request Strategies between Iranian EFL Learners and Canadian Native Speakers of English in Various Situations. IPEDR vol.26. Singapore: IACSIT Press

Sudaryanto. 2009. Dasar – dasar Penelitian. Surakarta: Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta

Uso-Juan, E., & Martinez-Flor, A. 2008. Teaching Learners to Appropriately Mitigate Requests. ELT Journal, 62(4), 349-357

Yule, George. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3178 | views : 3620


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Desi Wulan Sari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon Office

English Department
Faculty of Cultural Sciences,
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Soegondo Building, 3rd Floor, Room 306
Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
Telephone: +62 274 513096

ISSN: 2746-2668 (Online)

Web Analytics View Stats

Creative Commons License
LEXICON is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon is indexed in


About UsSubmissionIssuePoliciesReview