EXPLORING PREFERRED LEADERSHIP STYLES ACROSS INDUSTRIES: PERSPECTIVES OF FOLLOWERS

https://doi.org/10.22146/jlo.65845

Kerstin Ganzemiller(1), Phuong Vo(2), Andy Bertsch(3), Mohammad Saeed(4*), James Ondracek(5), David Pellenwessel(6), Monica Kea(7), Elizabeth Nadeau(8)

(1) Minot State University, ND
(2) Minot State University, ND
(3) Minot State University, ND
(4) Former Professor, Minot State University, North Dakota
(5) Minot State University, North Dakota
(6) Minot State University, North Dakota
(7) Minot State University, North Dakota
(8) Minot State University, North Dakota
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Introduction/ Main Objective: This study investigated preferred leadership styles, considered by many to be the most prevalent styles: autocratic, participative, and laissez-faire. We assessed ‘preferred leadership style’ from the perspective of the follower. The study aimed at exploring the variations in the preference for leadership styles across selected industries, namely the food/beverage industry, the retail industry, and the financial industry.

Novelty: Leadership styles and perspectives have been investigated from divergent angles; but the preferred leadership styles have not been explored adequately across industries. This study endeavored at filling the gap in literature, and to provide direction to stakeholders, as regards followers’ perspectives.

Research Methods: Our convenience sample was a result of a targeted effort to query respondents from three distinct samples: retail, restaurant/drink establishments, and consumer finance institutions (primarily banks). In addition to the preferred leadership from the perspective of the follower, we also collected demographic data including gender and age of the follower, in order to get the critical insights from demographic lenses. Our survey included the leader behavior questions that are borrowed from the LBDQ XII manual provided by Stogdill (1962), and involved an examination of the studies conducted by Van Eeden, et al.(2008) for examples of behaviors attributed to the various leadership styles.

Finding/Results: Our results were mixed. In some analyses, our results were reflective of the literature. However, in other analyses, our results differed from the literature. The study evinced tolerance for autocratic leadership, particularly in retailing, much against the pre-conceived notion. 

Conclusion: The study confirmed the generally- accepted hypothesis that employees from the food/beverage industry, the retail industry, and the financial industry all prefer participative leadership significantly more than autocratic or laissez-faire styles.


Keywords


Autocratic Leadership, Participative Leadership, Laissez-faire Leadership, Followership, Job Satisfaction

Full Text:

PDF


References

Agyemeng, C., Asamoah, E., Puni, A. (2016). Leadership styles, employee turnover intentions, and counterproductive work behaviors. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 5(1), 5.

Anwar, S., Haider, N., & Iqbal, N. (2015). Effect of leadership style on employee performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. 5(146), 4-5.

Belyh, A. (2019). Participative Leadership Guide: Definition, Qualities, Pros & Cons, Examples. Retrieved from https://www.cleverism.com/participative-leadership-guide/

Bertsch, A. (2009) Exploring Perceptions of Values in U.S. Managers: Interstate Cross-Cultural Differences and Similarities within the U.S.A., Doctoral Thesis (unpublished), Henley Management College, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom 

Bertsch, A., Pham, L. (2012) A Guide to Multivariate Analysis in Cross Cultural Research. Journal of International Doctoral Research, 1 (1), ISBN: 978-1-105-82415-9; ISSN: 2328-0832.

Bertsch, A., Nguyen, H., Alford, A., Baran, W., Reynen, J., Saeed, M., Ondracek, J. (2017) Exploring the Relationship Between Personality and Preferred Leadership, Journal of Leadership, Accountability, and Ethics, 14(1)

Bertsch, A., Abdullah, ABM, Saeed, M., Ondracek, J., Bremer, N., Denne, J., Eggl, B., Kasper, R., Van Wallegham, B., Welstad, T., Korf, T. (2018), Preferred Leadership Styles: Exploring Differences in Preferences of Private vs. Public High School Graduates, GE-International Journal of Management Research, 6( 3).

Bijlsma, K. M., & van de Bunt, G. G. (2003). Antecedents of trusts in managers: A ‘‘bottom up’’ approach. Personnel Review, 32, 638–664.

Bogler, R. (2001). The influence of leadership style on teacher job satisfaction. Educational administration quarterly, 37(5), 662-683.

Buxton, J. D., Ondracek, J., Saeed, M., Bertsch, A. (2017) FEMA Leadership and Hurricane Katrina, International Research Journal of Marketing and Economics, pp. 58 – 68, Volume 4, Issue 8

Chaudhry, A. Q., & Javed, H. (2012). Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style on motivation. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7).

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Leadership Styles. Retrieved from http://papercolorado.com/pdf/leadership/2 Leadership Styles.pdf

Cherry, K. (2019). What Are the Pros and Cons of Autocratic Leadership? Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-autocratic-leadership-2795314

Detert, J., & Burris, E. (2007). Leadership Behavior and Employee Voice: Is the Door Really Open? The Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869-884. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/20159894

Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 611–628.

Dolatabadi, H. R., & Safa, M. (2010). The effect of directive and participative leadership style on employees’ commitment to service quality. International Bulletin of Business Administration, 9(1), 31-42.

Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20, 16–27.

Fries, A., Kammerlander, N., & Leitterstorf, M. (2020). Leadership Styles and Leadership Behaviors in Family Firms: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 100374.

Giddens, J. (2018). Transformational leadership: What every nursing dean should know. Journal  of Professional Nursing, 34(2), 117-121.

Grant, L. G. J. G. B. H. A. (2018). Why People Really Quiet Their Jobs. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2018/01/why-people-really-quit-their-jobs

Hoel, H., & Salin, D. (2003). Organizational antecedents of workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and Emotional Abuse in The Workplace: International Perspectives In Research And Practice (pp. 203–218). London: Taylor & Francis.

House, R., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorman, P. & Gupta, V. (2004) Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, Thousand Oaks, Sage.

Huang, X., Iun, J., Liu, A., & Gong, Y. (2010). Does participative leadership enhance work performance by inducing empowerment or trust? The differential effects on managerial and non‐managerial subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 122-143.

Jain, Priyanka, & Luhar. Ashok (2021). A Literature Review on Leadership Styles and Framework PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology, 18(08), 3111-3115. Retrieved from https://archives.palarch.nl/index.php/jae/article/view/9348

Julian, B., Michael, R., Frone. (2016). If only my leader would just do something! passive leadership undermines employee well-being through role stressors and psychological resource depletion. Stress and Health: 33(3).

Kaushik, P. (2019). The Pros and Cons of Laissez-Faire Leadership. Retrieved from https://www.startingbusiness.com/blog/laissez-faire-pros-cons

Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation and Emotion (Vol. 15 pp. 192–238). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Khan, M. S., Khan, I., Qureshi, Q. A., Ismail, H. M., Rauf, H., Latif, A., & Tahir, M. (2015). The styles of leadership: A critical review. Public Policy and Administration Research, 5(3), 87-92.

Kotur, Bhargava R., and S. Anbazhagan. (2014). "The influence of age and gender on the leadership styles." IOSR Journal of Business and Management 16.1, 30-36.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1990). The Credibility Factor: What Followers Expect From Their Leaders. Management Review, 79(1), 29.

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created “Social Climates.” The Journal of Social Psychology, 10(2), 269–299. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1939.9713366

Littrell, R. F., Warner-Soderholm, G., Minelgaite, I., Ahmadi, Y., Dalati, S., Bertsch, A., & Kuskova, V. (2018) Explicit preferred leader behaviors across cultures: instrument development and validation, Journal of Management Development, Vol 37 (3).

Luthar, Harsh K. (1996). "Gender differences in evaluation of performance and leadership ability: Autocratic vs. democratic managers." Sex Roles 35.5(6), 337-361.

Mat, J. (2008). The Influence of Leadership Style on Internal Marketing in Retailing. https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/2153/1/Thesis%20for%20Submission%2014-11-2009.pdf

Mohiuddin, Z. A. (2017). Influence of Leadership Style on Employees performance: Evidencefrom Literatures. Journal of Marketing & Management, 8(1).

Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., & Swamy, D. R. (2014). Leadership styles. Advances in Management, 7(2), 57.

Olayisade, A., & Awolusi, O. D. (2021). The Effect of Leadership Styles on Employee’s Productivity in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry. Information Management and Business Review, 13(1(I), 47-64. https://doi.org/10.22610/imbr.v13i1(I).3194

Pedraja-Rejas, L., Rodríguez-Ponce, E., & Rodríguez-Ponce, J. (2006). Leadership styles and effectiveness: a study of small firms in Chile. Interciencia, 31(7), 500-504.

Pool, S. W. (1997). The relationship of job satisfaction with substitutes of leadership, leadership behavior, and work motivation. The Journal of Psychology, 131(3), 271-283.

Rast III, D. E., Hogg, M. A., & Giessner, S. R. (2013). Self-uncertainty and support for autocratic leadership. Self and Identity, 12(6), 635-649.

Shamaki, E. B. (2015). Influence of Leadership Style on Teacher's Job Productivity in                                  Public Secondary Schools in Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(10), 200-203.          

Sharon, C., Vida, S., Renata, T., James, R. (2013) Impact of leadership styles on employee organizational commitment.  Journal of Service Science, 6(1).

Stark, L. (1936). Problems of Labor Leadership. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 184(1), 199-205.

Stogdill, R.M. (1962). Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire - Form XII Self.

Stogdill, R.M. (1963) Manual for the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire – Form XII, Fisher college of Business. The Ohio State University

Tande, B., Lamon, K., Harstad, C., Ondracek, J., Bertsch, A. (2013) An Empirical Investigation into Similarities and Differences in Communication of Female and Male Students at a U.S. University, Journal of International Doctoral Research, 2(1).

Van Eeden, R., Cilliers, F., & Van Deventer, V. (2008). Leadership styles and associated personality traits: Support for the conceptualisation of transactional and transformational leadership. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 253-267.

Van Vugt, M., Jepson, S. F., Hart, C. M., & De Cremer, D. (2004). Autocratic leadership in social dilemmas: A threat to group stability. Journal of experimental social psychology, 40(1), 1-13.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jlo.65845

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2112 | views : 1862

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Leadership in Organizations

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Leadership in Organizations

Journal

Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism      

Authors

Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines               
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement   
Author Fees            

Download

Template                           

 

Reviewer

Reviewer Guidelines      
             

 

Reader

General Search
Achieves
Author index
Title index                       

 

 

Journal of Leadership in Organizations (JLO), with registered number ISSN 2656-8829 (Print) and ISSN 2656-8810 (Online), is published by the Center for Leadership Studies, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Leadership in Organizations