ETHICAL LEADERSHIP: CONCEPTUALIZATION AND MEASUREMENT

https://doi.org/10.22146/jlo.46929

Madyaning Krisharyuli(1*), Fathul Himam(2), Zulmi Ramdani(3)

(1) Assessor SDM Aparatur Muda, UPT Assessment Center BKPP Pemkot Yogyakarta
(2) Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aims to find out and build theory and interviews with making a scale and begin to measure the scale of ethical leadership. Not many measurements make the scale of ethical leadership by involving indigenous perspectives in its construction, so it becomes important to scale ethical leadership. Completed research method by using mixed methods for 195 leaders as respondents in the Yogyakarta City Government. Five leaders as respondents were interviewed using feno-grounded theory, 30 respondents in the step of trying out the scale, and 161 respondents for ethical research instruments. The results of the study show that the concept is also by the leader for things such as honesty, fairness, and openness in accordance with applicable rules. There are three factors in the scale of Ethical Leadership, namely Integrity, Professionalism, and Personal Development, which produces reliability r=0.843 with the number of items 24. The range of values of the loading factor between 0.306 to 0.719 shows the scale of ethical leadership, including valid and reliable able to measure the tendency of ethical leadership. Thus, the ethical leadership scales psychologically appropriate to be used to see the profile of the individual who acts as leaders.


Keywords


ethical leadership; ethical leadership scale; integrity; personal development;professionalism

Full Text:

PDF


References

Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings: Educational and Psychological Measurement. doi.org/10.1177/0013164485451012

Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7 ed.). River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Azwar, S. (2013). Penyusunan Skala Psikologi (II). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Azwar, S. (2016). Reliabilitas dan Validitas (4 ed.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117–134. doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.03.002

Budiharto, S., & Himam, F. (2006). Konstruk teoritis dan pengukuran kepemimpinan profetik. Jurnal Psikologi, 33(2), 133–145.

Ciulla, J. B. (2014). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership (Third Edition). Santa Barbara: Praeger.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. SAGE Publications. Diambil dari https://books.google.co.id/books?id=hZ6kBQAAQBAJ

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3 ed.). LA: Sage Publications.

Demirtas, O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2015). The effect of rthical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2196-6

Den Hartog, D. N., & Belschak, F. D. (2012). Work engagement and machiavellianism in the ethical leadership process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(1), 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1296-4

 Dickson, M. W., Smith, D. B., Grojean, M. W., & Ehrhart, M. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: the outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. Leaders, Followers, and Values, 12(2), 197–217. doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(01)00069-8

Dion, M. (2012). Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(1), 4–24. doi.org/10.1108/01437731211193098

Elçi, M., Şener, İ., Aksoy, S., & Alpkan, L. (2012). The Impact of Ethical Leadership and Leadership Effectiveness on Employees’ Turnover Intention: The Mediating Role of Work Related Stress. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 289–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.1003

Eva, N., Wolfram Cox, J., Tse, H. H. M., & Lowe, K. B. (2019). From competency to conversation: A multi-perspective approach to collective leadership development. Leadership Quarterly, (October), 101346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.101346

Fiaz, M., Su, Q., Amir, I., & Saqib, A. (2017). Leadership styles and employees’ motivation: Perspective from an emerging economy. The Journal of Developing Areas, 51(4), 143–156. https://doi.org/10.1353/jda.2017.0093

Jha, J. K., & Singh, M. (2019). Exploring the mechanisms of influence of ethical leadership on employment relations. In IIMB Management Review (Vol. 31). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iimb.2019.07.010

Kalshoven, K., Den Hartog, D. N., & De Hoogh, A. H. B. (2011). Ethical leadership at work questionnaire (ELW): Development and validation of a multidimensional measure. Leadership Quarterly, 22(1), 51–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.12.007

Karim, A., Mardhotillah, N. F., & Samadi, M. I. (2019). Ethical leadership transforms into ethnic: Exploring new leader’s style of Indonesia. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 1(2), 146–157.

Kelemen, T. K., Matthews, S. H., & Breevaart, K. (2019). Leading day-to-day: A review of the daily causes and consequences of leadership behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, (October), 101344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.101344

Madanchian, M., Hussein, N., Noordin, F., & Taherdoost, H. (2018). The impact of ethical leadership on leadership effectiveness among SMEs in Malaysia. Procedia Manufacturing, 22, 968–974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2018.03.138

Manners, A. T. (2008). Influence of transformational, autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership principles on the effectiveness of religious leaders. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, (August), 151. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.uta.edu/docview/304333995?accountid=7117%5Cnhttp://ns6rl9th2k.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/ProQuest+Dissertations+&+Theses+Full+Text&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertatio

Mayer, D., Aquino, K., Greenbaum, R., & Kuenzi, M. (2012). Who displays ethical leadership, and why does it matter? An examination of antecedentes and consequences of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 151–171. https://doi.org/10.1039/p19840002577

Mills, J. P., & Boardley, I. D. (2017). Development and initial validation of an indirect measure of transformational leadership integrity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 32, 34–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.05.005

Naiyananont, P., & Smuthranond, T. (2017). Relationships between ethical climate, political behavior, ethical leadership, and job satisfaction of operational officers in a wholesale company, Bangkok Metropolitan region. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 38(3), 345–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjss.2016.07.005

Piccolo, R., Greenbaum, R., Hartog, D., & Folger, R. (2010). The relationship between ethical leadership and core job characteristics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 259–278. https://doi.org/10.1002/job

Ramdani, Z. (2017). Forgiving is not only forgetting (phenomenological study on forgiveness in individual who experiences a friendship conflict). IJASOS-International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences, III(9), 829–839. https://doi.org/10.18769/ijasos.366853

Ramdani, Z. (2018). Construction of academic integrity scale. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 7(1), 87–97. https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrsp.2018.3003

Ramdani, Z., Supriyatin, T., & Susanti, S. (2018). Perumusan dan pengujian instrumen alat ukur kesabaran sebagai bentuk coping strategy. Jurnal Psikologi Islam Dan Budaya, 1(2), 97–106.

Sari, U. T. (2019). the effect of ethical leadership on voice behavior: The role of mediators organizational identification and moderating self-efficacy for voice. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 1(1), 48–66. https://doi.org/10.22146/jlo.43771

Shin, Y. (2012). CEO ethical leadership, Eethical climate, climate ctrength, and collective organizational itizenship behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(3), 299–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1091-7

Van Vugt, M., Jepson, S. F., Hart, C. M., & De Cremer, D. (2004). Autocratic leadership in social dilemmas: A threat to group stability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(03)00061-1

Yukl, G., Mahsud, R., Hassan, S., & Prussia, G. E. (2013). An improved measure of ethical leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 20(1), 38–48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051811429352

 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jlo.46929

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1255 | views : 866

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Leadership in Organizations

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Leadership in Organizations

Journal

Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism      

Authors

Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines               
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement   
Author Fees            

Download

Template                           

 

Reviewer

Reviewer Guidelines      
             

 

Reader

General Search
Achieves
Author index
Title index                       

 

 

Journal of Leadership in Organizations (JLO), with registered number ISSN 2656-8829 (Print) and ISSN 2656-8810 (Online), is published by the Center for Leadership Studies, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Leadership in Organizations