Vegetation Composition of Savanna Ecosystem as a Habitat For The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) on Padar and Komodo Islands, Flores East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.48280

S. Sutomo(1*)

(1) Spatial Ecology Laboratory, Research Centre for Plant Conservation and Botanical Garden - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI): Research Station Balai Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya Bali
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Tropical savanna and dry forest in Indonesia are an important type of ecosystem that supports various endemic wildlife of Indonesia including savannas at Padar and Komodo Islands which is home to the Komodo (Varanus komodoensis). The Komodo dragon is considered as “Vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Studies with regards to the Komodo dragons’ habitats are scarce, considering that these types of habitats are significant to support Komodo’s existence, but yet are also very prone to conversion and disturbances. This paper elaborates the results of ecological study on the tropical savanna forest in Komodo National Park as habitat for the Komodo dragon. Vegetation sampling was conducted using nested plots 20 x 20 m, 10 x 10 m, 5 x 5 m and 2 x 2 m spread across the sampling sites. Data was analysed using PRIMER software which includes cluster analysis, analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and similarity percentage (SIMPER). As many as 17 plant species which belongs to 11 families were identified in the sampling sites. These consist of six trees habitus, six shrubs, four grasses and one palm. Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae were the plant families which has high number of species. The result of cluster analysis shows that the similarity level of the two groups (Komodo and Padar) based on the results of cluster analysis is 60%. This result infers that there are similarities in terms of species composition in savanna on Komodo and Padar Island, however, each savanna still has its own species characteristics. This is confirmed by the ANOSIM test. The ANOSIM test results show the Global R value of 0.6.With the looming challenges from invasive alien plant species (IAPS), the Komodo Island’s savanna has double threats to overcome. Hence conservation of the remaining savanna ecosystem is important


Keywords


Savanna, Komodo, Padar, Flores, Invasive alien plant species

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ariefiandy, A., Purwandana, D., Natali, C., Imansyah, M. J., Surahman, M., Jessop, T. S., et al., 2015, Conservation of Komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis in the Wae Wuul nature reserve, Flores, Indonesia: a multidisciplinary approach, International Zoo Yearbook, 49(1), 67-80.

Ariefiandy, A., Purwandana, D., Seno, A., Chrismiawati, M., Ciofi, C., & Jessop, T.S., 2014, Evaluation of three field monitoring-density estimation protocols and their relevance to Komodo dragon conservation, Biodiversity and Conservation, 23(10), 2473-2490.

Auffenberg, W., 1981, The behavioral ecology of the Komodo monitor, University Press of Florida.

Caesariantika, E., Kondo, T. & Nakagoshi, N., 2011, Impact of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del invasion on plant species diversity in the Bekol Savanna, Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesia, Tropics 20(2), 45-54.

Ciofi, C., Tzika, A.C., Natali, C., Watts, P.C., Sulandari, S., Zein, M.S.A., et al., 2011, Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci, Molecular Ecology Resources, 11, 550-556.

Clarke, K.R. & Gorley, R.N., 2005, PRIMER: Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research (Version 6.0), Plymouth: PRIMER-E Ltd.

Davis, R.A., Doherty, T.S., van Etten, E.J.B., Radford, J.Q., Holmes, F., Knuckey, C., et al., 2016, Conserving long unburnt vegetation is important for bird species, guilds and diversity, Biodiversity and Conservation, 1-14.

Estoque, R.C., Estoque, R.S., Murayama, Y., 2012, Prioritizing Areas for Rehabilitation by Monitoring Change in Barangay-Based Vegetation Cover, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 1, 46-68.

Hill, M.J. & Hanan, N.P., 2011, Ecosystem Function in Savannas. New York: CRC Press.

IUCN, 2014, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Retrieved 2/09/2016, 2016, http://www.iucnredlist.org

Jessop, T.S., Sumner, J., Rudiharto, H., Purwandana, D., Imansyah, M.J. & Phillips, J.A., 2004, Distribution, use and selection of nest type by Komodo Dragons, Biological Conservation, 117(5), 463-470.

Purwandana, D., Ariefiandy, A., Imansyah, M.J., Rudiharto, H., Seno, A., Ciofi, C., et al., 2014, Demographic status of Komodo dragons populations in Komodo National Park, Biological Conservation, 171, 29-35.

Purwandana, D., Ariefiandy, A., Imansyah, M.J., Seno, A., Ciofi, C., Letnic, M., et al., 2016, Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny, Science Natural, 103(27), 6-11.

Rosleine, D. & Suzuki, E., 2013, Secondary sucession at abandoned grazing sites Pangandaran Nature Reserve West Java Indonesia, Tropics 21(3), 91-103.

Sutomo, 2017, Ecology of the Savanna Ecosystems in Indonesia, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Edith Cowan University, Perth.

Sutomo & van Etten, E., 2016, Unfolding Structure of Lowland Seasonal Tropical Dry Forest and Transition of Savanna in Indonesia, Paper presented at the EcoSummit 2016. Ecological Sustainability: Engineering Change, http://www.ecosummit2016.org/



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.48280

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 669 | views : 511

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)