“Ndableg,” “Ra Sah Ngeyel”: Verbal Offense through Banners about the COVID-19 Pandemic


Aris Munandar(1*)

(1) Department of Intercultural Studies, Faculty of Cultural sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Frustration can be expressed in public in different ways. During the Covid-19 pandemic, the grassroots protestors in Yogyakarta vent their frustrations triggered by the uncertainty through banners, which are simple, yet send messages of the country’s wrongdoings in dealing with the pandemic. This paper discusses verbal violence through negative sentiments expressed in the banners the Yogyakarta grassroots organizations use to respond to the Covid-19 pandemic prevention campaign. This study collected the data from 20 banners displayed in rural areas in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta, during March through April 2020. The analysis applied a sociopragmatic approach. The findings reveal the banners’ strong negative tones targetted to the lower-working class which reflect an inaccurate understanding of the fundamental concept of Covid-19 preventive measures and mitigation. Stigmatization of the lower-working class is underway to hurt the cohesion of society. The negative tones can escalate people’s anxiety, counterproductive to Covid-19 pandemic mitigation as it is against the wisdom of coping with the pandemic with a peaceful mind. Therefore, it suggests that evaluation by the agents of authority is imperative to prevent misunderstanding of the Covid-19 pandemic and build effective communication skills.


stigmatizing language; verbal offense; negative emotion; COVID-19 pandemic

Full Text:



Abi–Esber, F., Yang, P., Muranaka, H., & Moustakim, M. (2018). Linguistic Taboos: A Case Study on Australian Lebanese Speakers. Asian Culture and History, 10(1), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.5539/ach.v10n1p89

BBC.com. (2018, May 21). Menyusul serangan teror, pemakai cadar dan celana cingkrang m e na ngki s kec ur i ga a n. B B C N ews Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www. bbc.com/indonesia/trensosial-44199590

Bowen, M., Kinderman, P., & Cooke, A. (2019). Stigma: a linguistic analysis of the UK red-top tabloids press’ representation of schizophrenia. Perspectives in Public Health, 139 (1), 147-152. https://doi. org/10.1177/1757913919835858

Cambridge Dictionary. (2020). Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. (2019). Overcoming Stigma Through Language: A primer. Retrieved from https://www.ccsa.ca/sites/default/ files/2019-09/CCSA-Language-and- Stigma-in-Substance-Use-Addiction- Guide-2019-en.pdf

Cipto, H. (2020, April 1). Jenazah Pasien PDP Covid-19 yang Ditolak Warga di Makassar Ternyata Negatif Corona. Kompas.Com. Retrieved from https://regional.kompas. com/read/2020/04/01/17310251/jenazah- pasien-pdp-covid-19-yang-dit olak- warga-di-makassar-ternyata-negatif.

Culpeper, J., Iganski, P., & Sweiry, A. (2017). Linguistic impoliteness and religiously aggravated hate crime in England and Wales. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 5(1), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1075/ jlac.5.1.01cul

Darmoko. (2002). Ruwatan: upacara pembebasan malapetaka tinjauan sosiokultural masyarakat Jawa. Makara, Sosial Humaniora, 6(1), 30-36.

Djalante, R., Lassa, J., Setiamarga, D., Sudjatma, A., Indrawan, M., Haryanto, B., Mahfud, C., Sinapoy, M. S., Djalante, S., Rafliana, I., Gunawan, L. A., Surtiari, G. A. K., & Warsilah, H. (2020). Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 inIndonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Progress in Disaster Science, 8(2020)100129, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. pdisas.2020.100091

Everymind. (2020). Language and stigma. Everymind. Retrieved from https://everymind.org .au/ mental-health/ understanding-mental-health/language- and-stigma

Faizal, A. (2020, March 27). Cerita Bupati Sidoarjo Kesulitan Makamkan Pasien Covid-19, Ditolak Penggali Kubur dan Sopir Ambulans. Kompas.Com. Retrieved from https:/ / regional.kompas.com/ read/2020/03/27/10322601/cerita-bupati- sidoarjo-kesulitan-makamkan-pasien- covid-19-ditolak-penggali

Farnia, M., & Sheibani, Z. (2019). Cross-cultural Study of Iranian and English Students’ Impoliteness and Threat Responses. Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 12(24), 68–90.

Gugus Tugas P erc epatan P enanganan COVID-19. (2020). Pedoman Penanganan Cepat Medis dan Kesehatan Masyarakat Covid-19 di Indonesia. Retrieved from https://covid19.kemkes.go.id/protokol- covid-19/pedoman-penanganan-cepat- medis-dan-kesehatan-masyarakat-covid- 19-di-indonesia/#.Xy6AKigzZEY

Haugh, M. (2015). Impoliteness and taking offense in initial interactions. Journal of Pragmatics, 86(2015), 36-42. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.pragma.2015.05.018

Hofmann, S. G., Moore, P. M., Gutner, C., & Weeks, J. W. (2012). Linguistic correlates of social anxiety disorder. Cognition and Emotion, 26(4), 720-726. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2011.602048

Holmes, Janet. (2013). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 4th ed. New York: Routledge.

Ibda, H. (2019). Penggunaan Umpatan Thelo, Jidor, Sikem, Sikak Sebagai Wujud Marah Dan Ekspresi Budaya Warga Temanggung. Ranah: Jurnal Kajian Bahasa, 8(2), 172-188. https://doi.org/10.26499/rnh.v8i2.1293

Lam, O. (2018). Detecting subjectivity and tone with automated text analysis tools. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://medium.com/ pew-research-center-decoded/detecting- subjectivity-and-tone-with-automated-text- analysis-tools-5f0e662224b8

Liu, B., Hu, M., & Cheng, J. (2005). Opinion Observer : Analyzing and Comparing Opinions on the Web. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on World Wide Web.

Łysiuk, L. (2020). How words and emotions control behavior. Acta Neuropsychologica, 18(1), 127-140.

Mahardhika, A. (2020, March 3). Viral perawat di Jakarta diusir dari kos akibat menangani pasien corona. Detik Health. Retrieved from https://health.detik.com/berita- detikhealth/d-4958396/viral-perawat- di-jakarta-diusir-dari-kos-akibat- menangani-pasien-corona

Manca, A. R. (2014). Social Cohesion. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research. Netherland: Springer. https ://d oi. org/10.1007/978.94.007.0753.5

Márquez-Reiter, R., & Haugh, M. (2019). Denunciation, blame and the moral turn in public life. Discourse, Context & Media,28, 35–43.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com Nieto, V. G. (2020). Defamation as a Language Crime: A Sociopragmatic Approach to Defamation Cases in the High Courts of Justice of Spain. International Journal of Language & Law (JLL), 9, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.14762/jll.2020.001

Nieto, V. G. (2020). Defamation as a Language Crime: A Sociopragmatic Approach to Defamation Cases in the High Courts of Justice of Spain. International Journal of Language & Law (JLL), 9, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.14762/jll.2020.001

Nugraha, I. (2020, March 30). Kisah Pilu Jenazah Positif Corona di Tasikmalaya: Ditolak Warga, 24 Jam Tertahan di Ambulans. Kompas.Com. Retrieved from https://regional.kompas.com/read/2020/03/30/13414001/kisah-pilu-jenazah-positif-corona-di-tasikmalaya- ditolak-warga-24-jam

Pranowo, & Susanti, R. (2020). Strata sosial masyarakat Jawa sebagai bahasa nonverbal statis: Kajian etnopragmatik. Aksara, 32(1), 135–158. https://doi.org/10.29255/aksara.v32i1.548.135-150

Redmond, M. V. (2015). Face and politeness theories. English Technical Reports and White Papers, 2. Retrieved from http://lib. dr.iastate.edu/engl_reports/2

Reiter, R. M., & Placencia, M. E. (2005). Research Methods in Sociopragmatics. In Spanish Pragmatics (pp. 213–230). London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi. org/10.1057/9780230505018_6

Sebastian, L. C., & Chen, J. (2014). Pemuda rising: Why Indonesia should pay attention to its youth. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.

Setiawan, A. (2020). Pagebluk dan Ritus Tolak Bala di Jawa. Etnis. Retrieved from https:// etnis.id/pageblug-dan-ritus-tolak-bala- di-jawa/

Sifianou, M. (2011). On the concept of face and politeness. In Bargiela-Chiappini, F., Kádár D.Z. (eds) Politeness across cultures (pp. 42–58). London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230305939_3.

Sinkeviciute, V. (2017). Everything he says to me it’s like he stabs me in the face”: Frontstage and backstage reactions to teasing. In Nancy Bell (ed.), Multiple Perspectives on Language Play, 169-198. Boston: Mouton De Gruyter. https://doi. org/10.1515/9781501503993-008

Takkaç Tulgar, A. (2016). The role of pragmatic competence in foreign language education. Turkish Online Journal of English Language Teaching (TOJELT), 1(1), 10–19.

The conversation. (March 2, 2020). How the daily lives of Indonesian youth can tell us why they become more conservative. Indonesian Muslim Report. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/

Varagur,K.(2020,May13).Indonesia’sgovernment is slow to lock down, so its people took charge. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/ history/2020/05/indonesia-government- slow-lock-down-people-took-charge/

Wahyono, T. (2016). Pengaruh Pemahaman Aspek Filosofi Bahasa Jawa Terhadap Pola Komunikasi Masyarakat Dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Analisis, 12(1), 29-36.

Wardhough, Ronald. (2014). Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 5th ed., Malden: Blackwell

Waseem, Z., Davidson, T., Warmsley, D., & Weber, I. (2017). Understanding abuse: A typology of abusive language detection subtasks. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Abusive Language Online, 78–84. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W17-3012

Widagdo, H. (2012, July 4). Pasemon: Komunikasi Gaya Jawa. Baltyra. Retrieved from http://baltyra.com/2012/07/04/ pasemon-komunikasi-gaya-jawa/

Widhana, D. H. (2020, April 10). Kronologi Penolak an Jenazah Perawat Corona COVID-19 di Semarang. Tirto.Id. Retrieved from https://tirto.id/kronologi-penolakan-jenazah-perawat-corona-covid-19-di- semarang-eMi6

Wijana, I. D. P. (2008). Kata-kata kasar dalam bahasa Jawa. Jurnal Humaniora, 20(3), 249–256.

World Health Organization. (2020). Social Stigma associated with COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default- source/coronaviruse/covid19-stigma- guide.pdf?sfvrsn=226180f4_2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jsp.56401

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2668 | views : 2519


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.








  View My Stats