Kinerja Ketahanan Beras Di Indonesia: Komparasi Jawa Dan Luar Jawa Periode 2005-2017

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.41770

Corryati Wardani(1*), Jamhari Jamhari(2), Suhatmini Hardyastuti(3), Ani Suryantini(4)

(1) Program Doktor Ilmu Pertanian, Departemen Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(2) Departemen Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah
(3) Departemen Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(4) Departemen Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRACT

 The study analyzed rice resiliencei Indonesia using the rice security index indicator to described the performance of rice resilience by comparing Java and Outside Java condition in the period of 2005-2017. The method used was a descriptive approach, based on secondary data in the form of time series data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), and Logistics Affairs Agency (Bulog). The data was in the form of rice production, rice consumption, rice stocks, export and import of rice and other relevant data. The study was conducted by compiling a food balance sheet and calculating the ratio of the availability of per capita rice to the consumption of per capita rice, considering the expectation of rice self-sufficiency. The results of the analysis showed that either in Java, Outside Java or at the national level, it indicated that rice production increased due to the increase of productivity, national rice consumption growth -0.0013 percent driven by per capita rice consumption growth -1.35 percent despite population growth of 1.47 percent while rice resilience grew 7.68 percent per year. Condition Outside Java had a better performance of rice resilience than Java with an increase in the relative surplus of rice availability which was 44.54 percent higher than Java. Java achieved a lower increase in rice resilience due to the lower growth in the availability of per capita rice and decreased per capita rice consumption compared to Outside Java.Optimizing of rice production Outside Java and management of community consumption patterns through means to diversified staple foods and increased the nutritional quality of consumption need to be done so that rice resilience in the future will increased

ABSTRAK

Penelitian mengkaji ketahanan beras di Indonesia menggunakan indikator indeks ketahanan beras untukmengambarkan kinerja ketahanan beras denganmembandingkan Jawa dan luar Jawa periode 2005-2017. Metode yang digunakan adalah pendekatan deskriptif, berdasarkan data sekunder berupa data Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), Kementerian Pertanian (Kementan), dan Badan Urusan Logistik (Bulog), berupadata produksi padi, konsumsi beras, stok beras, ekspor dan impor beras serta data lain yang relevan. Kajian dilakukan dengan menyusun neraca bahan makanan dan menghitung rasio ketersediaan beras per kapitadengan konsumsi beras per kapita, mempertimbangkan harapan kemandirian beras. Hasil analisis regional Jawa dan luar Jawa maupun nasional menunjukkan produksi padi meningkat karena peningkatan produktivitas. Pertumbuhan konsumsi beras nasional -0,0013 persen didorongpertumbuhan konsumsi beras per kapita-1,35 persen meskipun terjadi pertumbuhan penduduk 1,47 persen, sehingga kinerja ketahanan beras tumbuh 7,68 persen per tahun.Kinerja ketahanan beras luar Jawalebih baik daripada Jawa dengan peningkatan surplus relatif ketersediaan beras lebih tinggi 44,54 persen dibanding Jawa.Peningkatan ketahanan berasJawa lebih rendah karena pertumbuhan ketersediaan beras per kapita dan penurunan konsumsi beras per kapita lebih rendah dibanding luar Jawa.Optimasi produksi beras di luar Jawa danpengelolaan pola konsumsi masyarakat melalui upaya diversifikasi pangan pokok maupun peningkatan kualitas gizi konsumsi perlu dilakukan agar ketahanan beras semakin meningkat.


Keywords


Rice Resilience Performance; Rice Resilience Index; Rice Production; Rice Consumption

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References

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Karini, D.M., 2013. Dampak Alih Fungsi Lahan Persawahan Terhadap Produksi Beras Dalam Rangka Ketahanan Pangan (Studi Kasus Di Kabupaten Tangerang). Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, XIX(1), hh.12–18.

Kearney, J., 2010. Food consumption trends and drivers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1554), hh.2793–2807.

Kementan RI, 2015. Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian Tahun 2015-2019. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian,tersedia di: <http://www1.pertanian.go.id/file/RENSTRA_2015-2019.pdf>.

Kusnadi, N. & Tinaprilla, N., 2011. Indonesia Rice Supply and Demand Dynamic Model. AFBE Journal, 4(2), hh.502–520.

Naylor, R.L., Battisti, D.S., Vimont, D.J., Falcon, W.P. & Burke, M.B., 2007. Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(19), hh.7752–7757. tersedia di: <http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0701825104>.

Nicholson, W., 1995. Teori Mikro Ekonomi. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara.

Nuryantono, N., Tongato, A., Yusdiyanto, S., Pasaribu, S.H. & Anggraenie, T., 2017. Land conversion and economic development in Jawa Barat Province: Trade off or Synergy? IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 54((2017)), hh.1–10.

Panuju, D.R., Mizuno, K. & Trisasongko, B.H., 2013. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1), hh.27–37. tersedia di: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2012.05.002>.

Pindyck, R.S. & Rubinfeld, D.L., 2001. Microeconomics. Fifth Edition. London: Prentice Hall International, Inc.

Sassi, M., 2018. Understanding Food Insecurity Key Features, Indicators, and Response Design. Switzerland : Springer Nature. tersedia di : <https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70362-6>.

Schneider, K. & Gugerty, P.M.K., 2011. Agricultural Productivity and Poverty Reduction: Linkages and Pathways. Evans School Review, 1(1), hh.56–74. tersedia di: <http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/esr/article/view/12249>.

Soekartawi, 1994. Teori Ekonomi Produksi dengan Pokok Bahasan Analisis Fungsi Cobb-Douglas. Jakarta: PT. Grafindo.

Sulistyo, S.R., Alfa, B.N. & Subagyo, S., 2016. Modeling Indonesia’s rice supply and demand using system dynamics. In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management. hh.415–419.

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Ye, L. & Van Ranst, E., 2009. Production scenarios and the effect of soil degradation on long-term food security in China. Global Environmental Change, 19(4), hh.464–481.

Ye, L., Xiong, W., Li, Z., Yang, P., Wu, W., Yang, G., Fu, Y., Zou, J., Chen, Z., Van Ranst, E. & Tang, H., 2013. Climate change impact on China food security in 2050. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(2), hh.363–374.

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Peraturan Perundangan

Undang-Undang Nomor 18 Tahun 2012 Tenta

Anindita, R., Pudjiastuti, A.Q. & Baladina, N., 2017. Food Self-Sufficiency Through Land Area Expansion (CGE Analysis in Indonesia). Kne Life Sciences, 2(6), hh.362-373. tersedia di: <https://knepublishing.com/index.php/Kne-Life/article/view/1056>.

Arifin, B., Achsani, N.A., Martianto, D., Sari, L.K. & Firdaus, A.H., 2018. Modeling the Future of Indonesian Food Consumption : Final Report. Jakarta. tersedia di: <https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000073760/download/>.

Bantacut, T., 2014. Indonesian Staple Food Adaptations For Sustainability in Continuously Changing Climates. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(21), hh.202–216.

Beattie, B.R. & Taylor, C.R., 1994. Ekonomi Produksi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

BPS, 2012. Konversi Gabah Kering Giling (GKG) ke Beras Tahun 2012. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

BPS, 2016. Distribusi Perdagangan Komoditas Beras Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Briones, R.M., 2016. Food (In)security & the Price of Rice Self-Sufficiency. Philippine Institute for Development Studies, 50(Series No. 2016-50), hh.1–10. tersedia di: <https://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/websitecms/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1650.pdf>.

Budhi, M.K.S., Yasa, I.N.M. & Darma, K., 2017. Impacts Of Development Of Population And Conversion Of Agricultural Land On Food Security (Rice) In Bali, Indonesia. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, V(12), hh.634–643.

Burchi, F. & De Muro, P., 2016. From Food Availability to Nutritional Capabilities: Advancing Food Security Analysis. Food Policy, 60, hh.10–19. tersedia di: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.03.008>.

Chawarika, A., 2016. Food Security and the Developing World-Emerging Issues. MPRA, (6461), hh.1–17.

Debertin, D.L., 1986. Agricultural Production Economics. Second Edition. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc.

Ebelechukwu, O.C., Onah, O.D., Oche, O.E., Kareem, A.A. & Ejike, O.M., 2017. Determination of a Better Mathematical Model for Food Security in Nigeria (A Case Study of Taraba State). International Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 4(6), hh.35–41.

Fairhurst, T.H. & Dobermann, A., 2002. Rice in the Global Food Supply. Better Crops International, 16(May), hh.3–6.

FAO, 2001. Food Balance Sheets : A Handbook,tersedia di: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286774>.

Feeney, R. & MacClay, P., 2016. Food security in Argentina: A production or distribution problem? International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 19(2), hh.1–32.

Gilarso, T., 1992. Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi : Bagian Makro. Yogyakarta: Kanisisus.

Gunadi, F., Sjarief, R., Nazli, S., Intan, E., Putri, K. & Noorachmat, B.P., 2018. Existence Of Food Self-Sufficiency Performance In West Java Province , Indonesia. International Journal Of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(8), hh.24–32.

Hilderink, H., Brons, J., Ordoñez, J., Akinyoade, A., Leliveld, A., Lucas, P. & Kok, M., 2012. Food security in sub-Saharan Africa: An explorative study,tersedia di: <http://www.pbl.nl/en/publications/2012/food-security-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-explorative-study>.

Hossain, M., 1997. Rice supply and demand in Asia: a socioeconomic and biophysical analysis. Applications of Systems Approaches at the Farm and Regional LevelsVolume 1, hh. 263-279 tersedia di : <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289044993_Rice_supply_and_ demand_in_Asia_a_socioeconomic_and_biophysical_analysis>.

Hossain, M. & Narciso, J., 2004. Global Rice Economy : Long-term Perspectives. In: FAO Rice Conference. Rome, Italy, hh.1–22.

Hui, L., 2013. The evaluation index system establishment of the food security in developing country. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 5(17), hh.4284–4290,tersedia di: <https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84877156794&partnerID=40&md5=48f74f5458a90d9e330f67ee31f0a65d.>.

Jaya, P.H.I., 2018. Nasib Petani Dan Ketahanan Pangan Wilayah (Studi Tentang Kebijakan Pemerintah Dan Respons Masyarakat Desa Mulyodadi, Bantul Ketika Harga Komoditas Pertanian Naik). Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 24(1), hh.77–93.

Jones, A., Ngure, F.M., Pelto, G. & Young, S.L., 2013. What Are We Assessing When We Measure Food Security? A Compendium and Review of Current Metrics1,2. Advances in Nutrition, 4(February), hh.481–505,tersedia di: <http://www.elgaronline.com/view/9780857939371.xml>.

Karini, D.M., 2013. Dampak Alih Fungsi Lahan Persawahan Terhadap Produksi Beras Dalam Rangka Ketahanan Pangan (Studi Kasus Di Kabupaten Tangerang). Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, XIX(1), hh.12–18.

Kearney, J., 2010. Food consumption trends and drivers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1554), hh.2793–2807.

Kementan RI, 2015. Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pertanian Tahun 2015-2019. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertanian,tersedia di: <http://www1.pertanian.go.id/file/RENSTRA_2015-2019.pdf>.

Kusnadi, N. & Tinaprilla, N., 2011. Indonesia Rice Supply and Demand Dynamic Model. AFBE Journal, 4(2), hh.502–520.

Naylor, R.L., Battisti, D.S., Vimont, D.J., Falcon, W.P. & Burke, M.B., 2007. Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(19), hh.7752–7757. tersedia di: <http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0701825104>.

Nicholson, W., 1995. Teori Mikro Ekonomi. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara.

Nuryantono, N., Tongato, A., Yusdiyanto, S., Pasaribu, S.H. & Anggraenie, T., 2017. Land conversion and economic development in Jawa Barat Province: Trade off or Synergy? IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 54((2017)), hh.1–10.

Panuju, D.R., Mizuno, K. & Trisasongko, B.H., 2013. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 12(1), hh.27–37. tersedia di: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2012.05.002>.

Pindyck, R.S. & Rubinfeld, D.L., 2001. Microeconomics. Fifth Edition. London: Prentice Hall International, Inc.

Sassi, M., 2018. Understanding Food Insecurity Key Features, Indicators, and Response Design. Switzerland : Springer Nature. tersedia di : <https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70362-6>.

Schneider, K. & Gugerty, P.M.K., 2011. Agricultural Productivity and Poverty Reduction: Linkages and Pathways. Evans School Review, 1(1), hh.56–74. tersedia di: <http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/esr/article/view/12249>.

Soekartawi, 1994. Teori Ekonomi Produksi dengan Pokok Bahasan Analisis Fungsi Cobb-Douglas. Jakarta: PT. Grafindo.

Sulistyo, S.R., Alfa, B.N. & Subagyo, S., 2016. Modeling Indonesia’s rice supply and demand using system dynamics. In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management. hh.415–419.

Summit, W.F., 1996. The Rome Declaration on World Food Security,tersedia di: <http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.htm>.

Suryani, E., J, D.P.I., Hendrawan, R.A. & Dewi, L.P., 2013. Analyzing Rice Demand and Supply Behavior for Food Availability : a System Dynamics Model . Case Study : Sub- Regional Surabaya , Gresik and Sidoarjo ). In: Information Systems International Conference (ISICO). hh.403–409.

Tang, Y., Bai, S. & Tang, J., 2015. Study on Influencing Factors of Food Security in China Based on Historical Data From 1978 to 2013. Studies in Sociology of Science, 6(4), hh.18–25.

Teng, P.P.S., Cabalero-Anthony, M. & Lassa, J.A., 2016. The Future of Rice Security Under Climate Change.NTS Report 2016. Singapore : RSISPublications@ntu.edu.sg.

Thomson, A.M. & Metz, M., 1999. Implications of Economic Policy for Food Security: A Training Manual. Rome, p.298. tersedia di: <http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/X3936E/X3936E03.htm>.

Timmer, C.P., 2010. The Changing Role of Rice in Asia’s Food Security.ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series No. 15 (September 2010). Philippines : Asian Development Bank, tersedia di <https://www.adb.org/publications/changing-role-rice-asias-food-security>.

Tomek, W.G. & Robinson, K.L., 1990. Agricultural Product Prices. New York: Cornell University Press.

Wibowo, C.S., 2015. Dampak Pengalihan Fungsi Lahan Sawah Pada Produksi Padi Sampai Tahun 2018 Dan Implikasinya Terhadap Ketahanan Pangan Wilayah (Studi Di Kecamatan Jaten Kabupaten Karanganyar Propinsi Jawa Tengah). Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 21(2), hh.107–117.

Wu, J., Zhang, J., Wang, S. & Kong, F., 2016. Assessment of food security in China: A new perspective based on production-consumption coordination. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(3), hh.1–14. tersedia di: <https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84961908075&partnerID=40&md5=0c3bd040415191a1f5771af20ac2ecba.>.

Van Oort, P.A.J., Saito, K., Tanaka, A., Amovin-Assagba, E., Van Bussel, L.G.J., Van Wart, J., De Groot, H., Van Ittersum, M.K., Cassman, K.G. & Wopereis, M.C.S., 2015. Assessment of rice self-sufficiency in 2025 in eight African countries. Global Food Security, 5, hh.39–49. tersedia di: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2015.01.002>.

 

Ye, L. & Van Ranst, E., 2009. Production scenarios and the effect of soil degradation on long-term food security in China. Global Environmental Change, 19(4), hh.464–481.

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Peraturan Perundangan

Undang-Undang Nomor 18 Tahun 2012 Tenta



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.41770

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