Collective Organizational Engagement to Enhance Organizational Performance: Case of Indonesia Office Services

Rulinawaty Rulinawaty(1), Ojat Darojat(2), Ajat Sudrajat(3*)

(1) Universitas Terbuka
(2) Universitas Terbuka
(3) Universitas Terbuka
(*) Corresponding Author


To increase the awareness on the role of employee engagement besides the individual analysis level and a lack of studies focused on the employee’s involvement at the level of organizational, the study aims at investigating the antecedents of COE as mediating variable to increase the organizational performance. The study was conducted for 6 months to enable a deep understanding and evaluation on organizational performance. A non-purposive sampling with purpose sampling technique deployed with multi resources respondent represented organizations method (top manager, middle managers, head department and selected employee). Data analyzed for 380 respondents with Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS 22. Statistical outputs described that the green work design, OCB Organizational Resources, and Innovative Concordance Culture highly considered as the antecedent of COE in developing the organizational performance. The findings also claimed that all hypotheses proposed are accepted. This study strengthens the relationship between the COE and HRM and Enbridge the gaps existed which is informed and extended the area of field research. In another hand, this research contributed on engagement in some ways, such as extending the study on the engagement in the level of organization and provided the solutions secondly, investigating the COE as a main mechanism of the most crucial human resources. This research also developed the antecedents of COE and also highlighted how the top management could strategically increase the performance based on the organizational resources and the leverage the collective engagement continuously pursuit the strategic organizational goals.


green design; innovative concordance culture; organizational resources; organizational performance

Full Text:



Adyawarman. (2021). The Challenges of Public Innovation: Insights From Risk Governance in Batang Regency. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik) 25(1), 1-24.

Ahmed, P. K. (1998). Culture and climate for innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 1(1), 30-43.

Arwanto, & Anggraini, W. (2022). Good Governance, International Organization and Policy Transfer: A Case of Indonesian Bureaucratic Reform Policy. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik) 26(1), 33-46.

Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2000). Burnout contagion processes among teachers. . Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 2289-2308.

Barney, J., Wright, M., &, & Ketchen, D. J. (2001). The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991. . Journal of Management, 27, 625-641.

Bloemraad, I., & Terriquez, V. (2017). Cultures of engagement: The organizational foundations of advancing health in immigrant and low-income communities of color Social Science & Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.02.003

Borkowska, A., & Czerw, A. (2017). Organizational roles and the work and organizational engagement. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 48(2), 188-197. doi: 10.1515/ppb-2017-0022

Campion, M. A., Papper, E. M., & Medsker, G. J. (1996.). Relations between work team characteristics and effectiveness. A replication and extension. Personnel Psychology, 49, 429-452.

Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 234-246.

Colbert, A. E., Kristof-Brown, A. L., Bradley, B. H., & Barrick, M. R. (2008). CEO transformational leadership: The role of goal importance congruence in top management teams. . Academy of Management Journal, 51, 81-96.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. . Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.

Eldor, L., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2016). The nature of employee engagement: rethinking the employee–organization relationship

The International Journal of Human Resource Management and Organization Review, 1-28. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2016.1180312

Erez, M., & Gati, E. (2004). A dynamic, multi-level model of culture: From the micro level of the individual to the macro level of a global culture. . Applied Psychology, 53(4), 583-598.

Grant, R. M. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation. . California Management Review, 33, 114-135.

Gustafson, J. P., & , & Cooper, L. (1985.). Theory and technique for the study of smallgroup processes. In A. D. Colman & M. H. Geller (Eds.), Group relations reader. Washington D.C.: A. K. Rice Institute Series., 2, 139-150.

Hackman, J. R., & , & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work—Test of a theory. . Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250-279.

Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Metaanalytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. . Academy of Management Journal, 49, 305-325.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., Asplund, J. W., Killham, E. A., & Agrawal, S. (2010). Causal impact of employee work perceptions on the bottom line of organizations. . Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 378-389.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Businessunit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268-279.

Hartmann, A. (2006). The role of organizational culture in motivating innovative behaviour in construction firms. . Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management, 6(3), 159-172.

Haryanti, S., & Rusfian, E. Z. (2018). Government Public Relations and Social Media: Bridging the Digital Divide on People with Social Welfare Problems. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik), 22(2), 128-145. doi:

Heugens, P. P., & Lander, M. W. (2009). Structure! Agency! (and other quarrels): A metaanalysis of institutional theories of organization. . Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 61-85.

Hewett, K., Money, R. B., & Sharma, S. (2002). An exploration of the moderating role of buyer corporate culture in industrial buyer-seller relationships. . Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 229-239.

Hofmann, D. A., & Morgeson, F. P. (1999). Safety-related behavior as a social exchange: The role of perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 286-296.

Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. . Administrative Science Quarterly, 286-316.

Holger Sieverta, & Scholzb, C. (2017). Engaging employees in (at least partly) disengaged companies. Results of an interview survey within about 500 German corporations on the growing importance of digital engagement via internal social media Public Relations Review, 4(6), 1=10. doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2017.06.001

Hsu, C., Lee, J. N., , & Straub, D. W. (2012). Institutional influences on information systems security innovations. . Information Systems Research, 23(3), 918-939.

Hsu, J. S., Shih, S., Hung, Y. W., & Lowry, P. B. (2015). The role of extra-role behaviors and social controls in information security policy effectiveness. . Information Systems Research, 26(2), 282-300.

Humphrey, S. E., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: A meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1332-1356.

Ireland, R. D., & Webb, J. W. (2006). International entrepreneur ship in emerging economies: A resourcebased perspective. In A. Cooper, S. A. Alvarez, A. Carrera, L. Mesquita & R. Entrepreneurship and innovation in emerging economies

Vassolo (Eds.),. Oxford,U.K.: Blackwell., 47-69.

Jassawalla, A. R., & Sashittal, H. C. (2002). Cultures that support product-innovation processes. . The Academy of Management Executive, 16(3), 42-54.

Jiang, H., & Men, R. L. (2015). Creating an Engaged Workforce: The Impact of Authentic Leadership, Transparent Organizational Communication, and Work-Life Enrichment. Communication Research(1-19). doi: 10.1177/0093650215613137

Jordi, G. R., & Trullen Joana Story (2016). Perceived organizational culture and engagement: the mediating role of authenticity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(6). doi: 10.1108/JMP-05-2015-0178

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692-724.

Kahn, W. A. (1992). To be fully there: Psychological presence at work. Human Relations, 45, 321-349.

Khazanchi, S., Lewis, M. W., & Boyer, K. K. (2007). Innovation-supportive culture: The impact of organizational values on process innovation. . Journal of Operations Management, 25(4), 871-884.

Klein, K. J., Conn, A. B., Smith, D. B., & Sorra, J. S. (2001). Is everyone in agreement? An exploration of withingroup agreement in employee perceptions of the work environment. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 3-16.

Kondra, A. Z., & Hurst, D. C. (2009). Institutional processes of organizational culture. . Culture and Organization, 15(1), 39-58.

Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Klein, K. J. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lau, C.-M., Tse, D. K., & Zhou, N. (2002). Institutional forces and organizational culture in China: Effects on change schemas, firm commitment and job satisfaction. . Journal of International Business Studies,, 533-550.

Leidner, D. E., & Kayworth, T. (2006). Review: A review of culture in information systems research: Toward a theory of information technology culture conflict. . MIS Quarterly, 30(2), 357-399.

LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis Journal of Applied Psychology,, 87(1), 52-65.

Lewis, M. W., Welsh, M. A., Dehler, G. E., & Green, S. G. (2002). Product development tensions: Exploring contrasting styles of project management. Academy of Management Journal, 45(3), 546-564.

Ling, Y., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M. H., & Veiga, J. F. (2008). The impact of transformational CEOs on the performance of small- to medium-sized firms: Does organizational context matter? . Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 923-934.

Liu, H., Ke, W., Wei, K. K., Gu, J., & Chen, H. (2010). The role of institutional pressures and organizational culture in the firm's intention to adopt internet-enabled supply chain management systems. Journal of Operations Management, 28(5), 372-384.

Macey, W. H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K. M., & Young, S. A. (2009). Employee engagement: Tools for analysis, practice, and competitive advantage. . Malden, MA: Wiley & Sons.

Markus, M. L. (2004). Technochange management: Using IT to drive organizational change. Journal of Information Technology, 19(1), 4-20.

Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1321-1339.

Mudhofar, M., & Gumanti, T. A. (2021a). Performance Allowance, Motivation, Employees’ Work Achievement And Organizational Performance Among Goverment Employees JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik) 25(5), 74-89.

Mudhofar, M., & Gumanti, T. A. (2021b). Performance Allowance, Motivation, Employees’ Work Achievement And Organizational Performance Among Goverment Employees. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik), 25(1), 74-89. doi:

Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's construct clean-up time. . Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.

Özer, Ö., Uğurluoğlu, Ö., & Saygılı, M. (2017). Effect of Organizational Justice on Work Engagement in Healthcare Sector of Turkey. Journal of Health Management, 19(1), 1–11. doi: 10.1177/0972063416682562

Pugh, S. D. (2001). Service with a smile: Emotional contagion in the service encounter. . Academy of Management Journal, 44, 1018-1027.

Quinn, R. E., & Rohrbaugh, J. (1983). . (1983). A spatial model of effectiveness criteria - Towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. . Management Science, 29(3), 363-377.

Rao, M. S. (2017). Innovative tools and techniques to ensure effective employee engagement Industrial and Commercial Training, 49(3). doi: 10.1108/ICT-06-2016-0037

Rich, B. L., LePine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. . Academy of Management Journal, 53, 617-635.

Rodrigues, S. B. (2006). The political dynamics of organizational culture in an institutionalized environment. . Organization Studies, 27(4), 537-557.

Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. . Research in organizational behavior, 30, 91-127.

Saks, A. M. (2017). Translating Employee Engagement Research into Practice Organizational Dynamics, 11. doi: 10.1016/j.orgdyn.2017.04.003

Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. . Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224-253.

Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. . Personnel Psychology, 40, 437-453.

Seibert, S. E., Silver, S. R., & Randolph, W. A. ( 2004). Taking empowerment to the next level: A multiplelevel model of empowerment, performance, and satisfaction. . Academy of Management Journal, 47, 332-349.

Smith, B. G., & Gallicano, T. D. (2015). Terms of engagement: Analyzing public engagement with organizations through social media. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 82-90. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.05.060

Stewart, G. L., Courtright, S. H., & Barrick, M. R. ( 2012). Peer-based control in self-managing teams: Linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 435-447.

Sunahwati, E., M., S. M., & Sukmawati, A. (2019). Human Resources Development Policy as a Strategy for Improving Public Organizational Performance. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik), 23(1), 50-62. doi:

Tyworth, M. (2014). Organizational identity and information systems: How organizational ICT reflects who an organization is. . European Journal of Information Systems, 23(1), 69-83.

Verčič, A. T., & Vokić, N. P. (2017). Engaging employees through internal communication Public Relations Review. doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2017.04.005

Walz, S. M., & Niehoff, B. P. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: Their relationship to organizational effectiveness. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 24(3), 301-319.

Weiling, K., & Kwok, K. W. (2008). Organizational culture and leadership in ERP implementation. Decision Support Systems, 45, 208-218.

William, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal ofManagement, 17(3), 601-617.

Yen, H. R., Li, E., & Niehoff, B. P. (2008). Do organizational citizenship behaviors lead to information system success? Testing the mediation effects of integration climate and project management. . Information Management & Security, 45, 394-402.

Yoon, C. (2009). The effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on ERP system success. . Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 421-428.

Zammuto, R. F., & Oconnor, E. J. (1992). Gaining advanced manufacturing technologies benefits - The roles of organization design and culture. Academy of Management Review, 17(4), 701-728.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2029 | views : 1508


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.