Far from Fire: The service delivery quality gap plaguing Indonesian Ports


Wayu Eko Yudiatmaja(1*), Alfiandri Alfiandri(2), Rahmat Hidayat(3)

(1) Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji
(2) Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji
(3) Faculty of Social dan Political Sciences, Universitas Maritim Raja Ali Haji
(*) Corresponding Author


This study analyzes the gap between expected and perceived services by ship passengers at the Sri Bayintan Port, Kijang, Riau Archipelago. The purpose of the paper is to examine the gap between expected and perceived service delivery by ship passengers in the Sri Bayintan Port.  To test the service gap, ServQual variables as postulated in Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry (1988) were used. The variables include tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Data were collected using a sample of 98 passengers, who were chosen at random. Research results showed that there is a significant difference between expected and perceived service delivery among   passengers who use Sri Bayintan port.  In particular, findings of this study showed that passengers were not satisfied with the quality of service delivery they received in Sri Bayintan Port.



port service; quality gap; ServQual

Full Text:



Agus, A., Barker, S., & Kandampully, J. (2007). An exploratory study of service quality in the Malaysian public service sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 24(2), 177–190.

Andhika, S. N. (2015). Kualitas pelayanan jasa terminal penumpang Gapura Surya Nusantara pada PT Pelindo III (Persero) Cabang Tanjung Perak Surabaya [Service quality passengers of Gapura Surya Nusantara on PT Pelindo III (Persero) Branch of Tanjung Perak, Surabaya]. Jurnal Mahasiswa Teknologi Pendidikan, 10(1), 1–20.

Ansah, E. E. (2008). Investigating the role of service interactions in perceptions of service quality: The case of the Ghanaian public sector. Ph.D Thesis in The State University of New Jersey.

Arsanam, P., & Yousapronpaiboon, K. (2014). The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction of pharmacy departments in public hospitals. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 5(4), 261–265.

Berry, L. L. et al. (1994). Improving service quality in America : Lessons leared and executive commentary. Academy of Management Executive, 8(2), 32–52.

Boyne, G. A. (2002). Public and private management: What’s the difference? Journal of Management Studies, 39(1), 97–122.

Brown, S. W., & Swartz, T. A. (1989). A gap analysis of professional service quality. Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 92–98.

Brown, T., Churchill, G., & Peter, P. (1993). Improving the measurement of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 69(1), 127–139.

Brysland, A., & Curry, A. (2001). Service improvements in public services using SERVQUAL. Managing Service Quality, 11(6), 389–401.

Clements, M. E. (2001). Local telephone quality-of-service: The impact of regulation and competition. Ph.D Thesis in The Ohio State University.

Curry, A., & Sinclair, E. (2002). Assessing the quality of physiotherapy services using Servqual. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 15, 197–205.

Denhadrt, J. V, & Denhardt, R. B. (2007). The new public service: Serving, not steering, expanded edition. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Dick, A. A., & Dick, A. A. (2007). Market size, service quality, and competition in banking. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 39(1), 49–81.

Donnelly, M. et al. (1995). Measuring service quality in local government: The SERVQUAL approach. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 8(7), 15–20.

Ferlie, E. et al. (1996). The new public management in action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Giannoccaro, R. et al. (2008). Measuring citizen satisfaction with aspects of public services from a local authority and determining their importance: A case study. Public Organization Review, 8(1), 1–15.

Grönroos, C. (1984). A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), 36–44.

Hariastuti, N. L. P., & Ardiansyah, D. R. (2013). Peningkatan kualitas layanan kepada pelanggan di terminal penumpang Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak Surabaya [Improving customers service quality at passenger terminal in Tanjung Perak Port, Surabaya]. Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Industri, 12(2), 192–200.

Hartley, J., & Skelcher, C. (2008). The agenda for public service improvement. In J. Hartley, C. Donaldson, C. Skelcher, & M. Wallace (Eds.), Managing to improve public services (pp. 3–23). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jakka, A. A. (2004). Client-quality dimensions: Empirical evidence from the public sector of the United Arab Emirates. Public Organization Review, 4(3), 239–257.

Kettl, D. F. (2000). The global public management revolution. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Kim, Y. (2004). Managing and assessing Internet service needs and use of under-served populations at public libraries. In Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting (Vol. 41, pp. 479–487).

Lachman, R. (1985). Public and private sector differences: CEOs’ perceptions of their role environments. Academy of Management Journal, 28(3), 671–680.

Lewis, B. D., & Pattinasarany, D. (2009). Determining citizen satisfaction with local public education in Indonesia: The significance of actual service quality and governance conditions. Growth and Change, 40(1), 85–115.

Malhotra, N. K. et al. (2005). Dimensions of service quality in developed and developing economies: multi-country cross-cultural comparisons. International Marketing Review, 22(3), 256–278.

McKoy, D. V. (2004). The new public management in Jamaica: Executive agencies and service quality delivery in public sector reforms. Ph.D Thesis in Nova Southeastern University.

Moulton, S., & Wise, C. (2010). Shifting boundaries between the public and private sectors: Implications from the economic crisis. Public Administration Review, 70(3), 349–360.

Murray, M. A. (1975). Comparing public and private management: An exploratory Essay. Public Administration Review, 35(4), 364–371.

Najjar, L., & Bishu, R. R. (2006). Service quality : A case study of a bank. Quality Management Journal, 13(3), 35–44.

Orwig, R. A., Pearson, J., & Cochran, D. (1997). An empirical investigation into the validity of SERVQUAL in the public sector. Public Administration Quarterly, 21(1), 54–68.

Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Osborne, D., & Plastrik, P. (1997). Banishing bureaucracy: The five strategies for reinventing government. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Pantouvakis, A. (2006). Port-service quality dimensions and passenger profiles: An exploratory examination and analysis. Maritime Economics & Logistics, 8(4), 402–418.

Pantouvakis, A., Chlomoudis, C., & Dimas, A. (2008). Testing the SERVQUAL scale in the passenger port industry: A confirmatory study. Maritime Policy & Management, 35(5), 449–467.

Pantouvakis, A., & Lymperopoulos, K. (2008). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in the eyes of new and repeat customers: Evidence from the transport sector. Managing Service Quality, 18(6), 623–643.

Parasuraman, A., Berry, L. L., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1991). Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL Scale. Journal of Retailing, 67(4), 420–450.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer Perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12–40.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1993). More on improving service quality measurement. Journal of Retailing.

Pérez, M. S. et al. (2007). Effects of service quality dimensions on behavioural purchase intentions: A study in public-sector transport. Managing Service Quality, 17(2), 134–151.

Pinar, M., & Eser, Z. (2008). Examining the bank service quality from personnel point of view: The comparisons of state, private and foreign banks in Turkey. The Business Review, 10(2), 27–34.

Pramusinto, A. (2006). Inovasi-inovasi pelayanan publik untuk pengembangan ekonomi lokal: Pengalaman beberapa daerah [Innovations of public service for developing local economy: Experience from some regions]. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 10(1), 1–18.

Rainey, H. G., Backoff, R. W., & Levine, C. H. (1976). Comparing public and private organizations. Public Administration Review, 36(2), 233–244.

Rainey, H. G., & Bozeman, B. (2000). Comparing public and private organizations: Empirical research and the power of the a priori. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(2), 447–469.

Rhee, S.-K., & Rha, J.-Y. (2009). Public service quality and customer satisfaction: Exploring the attributes of service quality in the public sector. Service Industries Journal, 29(11), 1491–1512.

Rowley, J. (1998). Quality measurement in the public sector: Some perspectives from the service quality literature. Total Quality Management, 9(2/3), 321–333.

Shah, A. (2005). Public services delivery: Public sector governance and accountability series. The World Bank. Washington, D.C.

Soamole, B., & Susanto, B. (2013). Analisis persepsi penumpang terhadap kualitas pelayanan angkutan laut di Pelabuhan Regional Sanana Kab. Kepulauan Sula, Provinsi Maluku Utara [Analyzing perceptions of passengers on quality service of sea transportation at Regional Port of Sanana Sula Islands, North Maluku]. Jurnal Teknik Sipil, 12(3), 202–209.

Taylor, F. W. (1947). Scientific management. New York: Harper and Row.

Tejada, J. J., & Punzalan, J. R. B. (2012). On the misuse of Slovin’s formula. The Philippine Statistician, 61(1), 129–136.

Ugboma, C., Ibe, C., & Ogwude, I. C. (2004). Service quality measurements in ports of a developing economy: Nigerian ports survey. Managing Service Quality, 14(6), 487–495.

Ugboma, C. et al. (2007). Service quality and satisfaction measurements in Nigerian ports: An exploration. Maritime Policy & Management, 34(4), 331–346.

White, L. D. (1926). Introduction to the study of public administration. New York: Macmillan.

Widaningrum, A. (2007). Bekerjanya desentralisasi pada pelayanan publik [Working decentralization in public services]. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan Dan Administrasi Publik), 11(1), 43–60.

Widihastuti, I. (2003). Evaluasi kualitas pelayanan organisasi sosial dengan metode SERVQUAL di Kota Surakarta: Studi pada organisasi sosial yang memberikan pelayanan kesejahteraan sosial [Evaluating quality service of social organizations with SERVQUAL method in Surakarta City]. Master Thesis in Diponegoro University, Semarang.

Willoughby, W. F. (1927). Principles of public administration. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wisniewski, M. (2001). Using servqual to assess customer satisfaction with public sector services. Managing Service Quality, 11(6), 380–388.

Wisniewski, M., & Donnelly, M. (1996). Measuring service quality in the public sector: The potential for SERVQUAL. Total Quality Management, 7(4), 357–365.

Yousapronpaiboon, K. (2014). SERVQUAL: Measuring higher education eervice quality in Thailand. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 116, pp. 1088–1095).

Yousapronpaiboon, K., & Johnson, W. C. (2013a). A Comparison of service quality between private and public hospitals in Thailand. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(11), 176–184.

Yousapronpaiboon, K., & Johnson, W. C. (2013b). Measuring hospital out-patient service quality in Thailand. Leadership in Health Services, 26(4), 338–355.

Yousapronpaiboon, K., & Johnson, W. C. (2013c). Out-patient service quality perceptions in private Thai hospitals. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(2), 57–66.

Yudiatmaja, W. E. (2012). Dinamika administrasi negara kontemporer: Konsep dan isu [The Dynamics of contemporary public administration: Concepts and Issues]. Yogyakarta: Capiya Publishing.

Zeithaml, V. A. (2002). Service excellence in electronic channels. Managing Service Quality, 12(3), 135–139.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1990). Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York: The Free Press .

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkap.22713

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2211 | views : 2360


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.