Cover Image

Effects of husk charcoal and watering on the biochemical and physiological properties of coix millet (Coix lacryma jobi L.) during vegetative phase

Fadillatunnisa Fadillatunnisa(1*), Didik Indradewa(2), Eka Tarwaca Susila Putra(3)

(1) Gadjah Mada University
(2) Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora, Buluksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora, Buluksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Continuous climate change increases the number of droughts in some areas, thereby affecting agricultural production. Cultivation of coix millet (Jali plant in Indonesian) is profitable because of its high adaptability to drought stress, and its seeds have the potential to be used as food due to their benefits for body health. The application of organic matter, namely husk charcoal, was chosen to increase agricultural production under drought stress. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of husk charcoal on the biochemical and physiological properties of coix millet during vegetative phase under drought stress and to determine the longest watering interval the plant can tolerate. Research was arranged in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three watering intervals (every two, four, and six days). The sub-plots consisted of three doses of husk charcoal, namely 0 g polybag⁻¹ (0 tons ha⁻¹), 32 g polybag⁻¹ (10 tons ha⁻¹), and 64 g polybag⁻¹ (20 tons ha⁻¹). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tested using Duncan's Multiple Distance Test (DMRT) at a significant level of 5%. The results showed that husk charcoal could increase the chlorophyll content in plants experiencing drought stress. The longest watering interval that could be tolerated by coix millet given husk charcoal at the optimal dose (64 g polybag⁻¹) was once every four days.


coix millet;drought stress;husk charcoal doses

Full Text:



Alexieva, V., Sergiev, I., Mapelli, S. and Karanov, E. (2001). The effect of drought and ultraviolet radiation on growth and stress markers in pea and wheat. Plant, Cell and Environment, pp. 1337–1344.
Amen, Y., Arung, E. T., Afifi, M. S., Halim, A. F., Ashour, A., Fujimoto, R., Goto, T. and Shimizu, K. (2017). Melanogenesis inhibitors from Coix lacryma-jobi seeds in B16-F10 melanoma cells. Natural Product Research, 31(23), pp. 2712–2718.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. polyphenoloxidase in beta vulgaris. Plant physiology, 24(1), pp. 1–15.
Ashraf, M. and Harris, P. J. C. (2013). Photosynthesis under stressful environments : An overview. Photosynthetica, 51(2), pp. 163–190.
Bailey, L. F., Rothacher, J. S. and Cummings, W. H. (1951). A critical of the cobalt chloride method of measuring transpiration. Plant physiology, 27(3), pp. 563–574.
Bandurska, H., Niedziela, J., Borek, M. P., Nuc, K., Chadzinikolau, T. and Radzikowska, D. (2017). Regulation of proline biosynthesis and resistance to drought stress in two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes of different origin. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, pp. 427–437.
Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P. and Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, pp. 205–207.
Chutipaijit, S. (2016). Changes in physiological and antioxidant activity of indica rice seedlings in response to mannitol-induced osmotic stress. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 76(4), pp. 455–462.
Cresna., Napitupulu, M. and Ratman. (2014). Analysis of vitamin C in the fruit of papaya, soursop, sugar apple and langsat that grown in Donggala. J. Akad. Kim, 3(3), pp. 58–65.
Giannopolitis, C. N. and Ries, S. K. (1977). Superoxide Dismutases I. Occurrence in Higher Plants. Plant physiology, 59(2), pp. 309–14.
Guo, W. (2017). Chapter 11 - Magnesium homeostasis mechanisms and magnesium use efficiency in plants. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency, pp. 197–213.
Haryanti, S. (2010). Number and distribution of stomata on the leaves of some dicotyledoneae and monocotyledoneae plant species. Anatomy and Physiology Bulletin, 18(2), pp. 21–28.
Hasthanasombut, S., Ntui, V., Supaibulwatana, K., Mii, M. and Nakamura, I. (2010). Expression of Indica rice OsBADH1 gene under salinity stress in transgenic tobacco. Plant Biotechnol, pp. 75–83.
Irawanto, R., Lestari, D. A. and Hendrian, R. (2017). Jali (Coix lacryma-jobi L.): Seeds, germination, and its potential. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Indonesian Biodiversity Society, 3(1), pp. 147–153.
Juhaeti, T. (2015). Jali (Coix lacryma - jobi L .; Poaceae) for food diversification : Its productivity under various doses of fertilization, pp. 163–168.
Koyama, S. and Hayashi, H. (2019). Effects of single and successive applications of rice husk charcoal on paddy soil carbon content and rice productivity during two cropping seasons. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 65(2), pp. 196–202.
Lolomsait, Y. (2016). The effect of rice husk charcoal and frequency of spraying liquid organic fertilizer on growth and yield of red chili plants (Capsicum annum L .). Journal of Dryland Conservation Agriculture, 1(4), pp. 125–127.
Margolang, R. D., Jamilah and Sembiring, M. (2015). The characteristis of some of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil in organic farming systems. Agroecotechnology Online Journal, 3(2), pp. 717–723.
Marques, D. M., Da Silva, A. B., Mantovani, J. R., Magalhaes, P. C. and De Souza, T. C. (2019). Root morphology and leaf gas exchange in Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. (Caesalpinioideae) exposed to copper-induced toxicity. South African Journal of Botani, 121, pp. 186–192.
Mulwa, C.K. and Visser, M. (2020). Farm diversification as an adaptation strategy to climatic shocks and implications for food security in northern Namibia. World Development, 129, pp. 104906.
Padilla, F. M., Fleitas, M. T. P., Gallardo, M. and Thompson, R. B. (2014). Evaluation of optical sensor measurements of canopy reflectance and of leaf flavonols and chlorophyll contents to assess crop nitrogen status of muskmelon. European Journal of Agronomy, 58, pp. 39–52.
Pratt, H. K. and Mendoza, D. B. (1979). Colorimetric determination of carbon dioxide for respiration studies. HortScience, 14(2), pp. 175–176.
Qian, Z., Jian, K. L., Zi, S. Y., Dong, Y. X., Jun, Z. H., Ti, X. F. and Xue, A. (2019). Effect of biochar on grain yield and leaf photosynthetic physiology of soybean cultivars with different phosphorus efficiencies. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18(10), pp. 2242–2254.
Sembiring, L. K., Sipayung, R. and Irsal. (2018). Growth response of robusta coffee seeding (Coffea Robusta L.) on various planting media and watering frequency. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 5(1), pp. 158–169.
Wang, L., Chen, C., Su, A., Zhang, Y., Yuan, J. and Ju, X. (2016). Structural characterization of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the phenolic-rich fraction from defatted adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed meal. Food Chemistry, 196, pp. 509–17.
Wang, X. M., Wang, X. K., Su, Y. B. and Zhang, H. X. (2019). Land pavement depresses photosynthesis in urban trees especially under drought stress. Science of the Total Environment, 653, pp. 120–130.
Xu, J., Guo, L. and Liu, L. (2022). Exogenous silicon alleviates drought stress in maize by improving growth, photosynthetic and antioxidant metabolism. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 201, pp. 104974.
Yao, Y., Zhu, Y., Gao, Y. and Ren, G. (2015). Effect of ultrasonic treatment on immunological activities of polysaccharides from adlay. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 80, pp. 246–252.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 426 | views : 332


  • There are currently no refbacks.