Cover Image

Effects of relay intercropping model and application of biological agents on the growth and yield of hot pepper

https://doi.org/10.22146/ipas.69078

Nindy Sevirasari(1), Endang Sulistyaningsih(2*), Budiastuti Kurniasih(3), Suryanti Suryanti(4), Arif Wibowo(5), Tri Joko(6)

(1) Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Yogyakarta
(2) Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Yogyakarta
(3) Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Yogyakarta
(4) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Yogyakarta
(5) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Yogyakarta
(6) Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Tiyung cultivar, the consumer preferences of hot pepper in Magelang Regency, is still low in productivity (7 ton.ha-1). This research aimed to determine the growth and yield of hot pepper planted in relay intercropping as affected by biological agent application as a technology to increase productivity. This research was arranged in a Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with an intercropping pattern of hot pepper (two and three rows model). The second factor was the application of biological agents, consisting of Trichoderma asperellum, Bacillus velezensis B-27 and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (with and without biological agents). The control was the monoculture of hot pepper without biological agent application. The data observed were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and followed by the Duncan's Multiple Range Test at α= 5 %. The results showed that the relay intercropping of hot pepper produced less numbers of branches and leaves.  It indicated more efficiency in the use of assimilates for the development of generative organs, thereby resulting in the high values fruits weight per plant, which were as high as those in monoculture. The productivity observed in relay intercropping was 12.93 ton.ha-1, which was 15.8 % higher than in monoculture. The application of biological agents significantly increased the stomatal density, the size of stomatal opening, the number of leaves, weight of fruits per plant and productivity of hot pepper. The productivity of plant applied with biological agents was 16.84 ton.ha-1, which was 86.50 % higher than that without biological agents application.


Keywords


horticultural crop; productivity, tiyung cultivar

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ahmadi, B., Rad, A.H.S., and Delkhosh, B. (2014). Evaluation of plant densities on analysis of growth indices in two canola forage (Brassica napus L.). Euro. J. Exp. Bio., 4(2), pp. 286-294.

Ahmed, M., Ishtiaque, S., Sarker, M.M.R., Khan, A.S.M.M.R., Choudhury, A.K., Hasan, M.K., Hossain, F., Paul, S.K., and Islam, M.U. (2016). Hybrid maize and chilli intercropping in the hilly areas of bandarban. Bangladesh Agron. J., 19(1), pp. 45-48.

Asharp, G. and Sivachandiran, S. (2018). Effect of partial shade and weeding intervals on growth and yield performance of chili (Capsicum frutescens L.) in dry zone of Sri Lanka. Journal of Agriculture Studies, 6(4) pp. 82-91.

Azoulay-Shemer, T., Palomares, A., Bagheri, A., Nordstrom, M.I., Engineer, C.B., Bargmann, B.O.R., Stephan, A.B., and Schroeder, J.I. (2015). Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2- and ABA-induced stomatal closing. The Plant J., 83(4), pp. 567-58.

Barrs, H.D. and Weatherley, P.E. (1962). A re-examination of the relative turgidity techniques for estimating water deficits in leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sci., 15(3), pp. 413-428.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2018). Produktivitas cabe rawit menurut provinsi, tahun 2014-2018 [Online] Available at: https://www.pertanian.go.id/home/index.php?show=repo&fileNum=340 [Accessed 19 August 2021].

Cappellari, L.R., Santoro, M.V., Reinoso, H., Travaglia, C., Giordano, W., and Travaglia, E. (2015). Anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical effects of inoculation with plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria on peppermint (Mentha piperita). J. Chem Ecol., 41(2), pp. 149-158.

Datta, M., Palit, R., Sengupta, C., Pandit, M.K., and Banerjee, S. (2011). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under field conditions. AJCS. 5(5), pp. 531-536.

Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura Kementerian Pertanian. (2016). Dirjen hortikultura panen raya cabai rawit di Magelang [Online] Available at: http://hortikultura.pertanian.go.id/?p=1614 [Accessed 02 September 2019].

Ganefianti, D.W., Arianti, N.N., Sutrawati, M., Saputra, H.E., Fahrurrozi, F. and Herawati, R. (2019). Superiority test of mixed-cropping models for chili pepper hybrid varieties through participatory plant breeding. Int. J. of Agricultural Tech., 15(6), pp. 879-890.

Geetha, P., Tayade, A.S., Kumar, R.A. and Kumar, R. (2019). Light interception in sugarcane based intercropping system. J. of Agrometeorology, 21(2), pp. 210-212.

Herrera-Parra, E., Cristóbal-Alejo, J., and Ramos-Zapata, J.A. (2017). Trichoderma strains as growth promoters in Capsicum annuum and as biocontrol agents in Meloidogyne incognita. J. of Agricultural Research, 77(4), pp. 318-324.

Ilmiah, H.H., Sulistyaningsih, E. and Joko, T. (2021). Fruit morphology, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Salacca zalacca (Gaertner) Voss by applications of goat manures and Bacillus velezensis B-27. Caraka Tani: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 36(2), pp. 1-13.

Jung, S.C., Martinez-Medina, A., Lopez-Raez, J.A., and Pozo, M.J. (2012). Mycorrhiza-induced resistance and priming of plant defenses. J. Chem. Ecol., 38(6), pp. 651-664.

Konica Minolta. (2009). Chlorophyll meter spad-502 manual book. [ebook] Japan: Konika Minolta. Available at: https://konicaminolta.com/instruments/network [Accessed 15 December 2020].

Kouassi, C.K., Koffi-nevry, R., Guillaumel, L.Y., Yesse, Z.N., Koussemoon, M., Kablan, T., and Athanase K.K. (2012). Profiles of bioactive compounds of some pepper fruit (Capsicum L.) varieties grown in Côte d’ivoire. Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnol, 11, pp. 23-31.

Kurniaty, R., Budiman, B., and Suartana, M. (2010). Pengaruh media dan naungan terhadap mutu bibit Suren (Toona sureni Merr.). Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman, 7(2), pp. 77-83.

Libria, W., Tohari and Sulistyaningsih, E. (2004). Pengaruh intensitas cahaya dan kadar daminosida terhadap iklim mikro dan pertumbuhan tanaman krisan dalam pot. Ilmu Pertanian (Agricultural Science), 11(2), pp. 35-42.

Lugojan, C. and Ciulca, S. (2011). Evaluation of relative water content in winter wheat. J. Hortic. Fores. Biotechnol, 15(2), pp. 173-177.

Madusari, S., Yama, D.I., Jumardin, Liadi, B.T., and Baedowi, R.A. (2018). Pengaruh inokulasi jamur mikoriza arbuskular terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman cabai. Seminar Nasional Sains dan Teknologi Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, pp. 1-8.

Maure, G.H., Choizin, M.A., and Santosa E. (2019). The effect of population density and intercropping with tomato on the growth and yield of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 6(2), pp. 81-88.

Mitiku, A., Chala, A., and Beyene, Y. (2014). Effect of intercropping on aphid vectors and yield of pepper (Capsicum annum L.) In southern part of ethiopia. International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research, 2(6), pp. 28-34.

Palaniappan, S.P. (1985). Cropping system in the tropic: prinsiples and management. 1st ed. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Limited and Coimbataro: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, pp. 7-8.

Pereira, J.A.P., Vieira, I.J.C., Freitas, M.S.M., Prins, C.L., Martins, M.A., and Rodrigues, R. (2016). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Capsicum spp. Journal of Agriculture Science, 154(5), pp. 828-849.

Piromyou, P., Buranabanyat, B., Tantasawat, P., Tittabutr, P., Boonkerd, N., and Teaumroong, N. (2011). Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation on microbial community structure in rhizosphere of forage corn cultivated in Thailand. European J. Soil Biol, 47(1), pp. 44-54.

Portes, T. and de Melo, H.C. (2014). Light interception, leaf area and biomass production as a function of the density of maize plants analyzed using mathematical models. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, 36(4), pp. 457-463.

Pratiwi, S.H. (2016). Pertumbuhan dan hasil padi (Oryza sativa L.) sawah pada berbagai metode tanam dengan pemberian pupuk organik. Gontor Agrotech Science Journal, 2(2), pp. 1-19.

Samaniego-Gamez, B.Y., Garruna, R., Tun-Suarez, J.M., Kantun-Can, J., Reyes-Ramirez, A., and Cervantes-Diaz, L. (2016). Bacillus spp. inoculation improves photosystem II efficiency and enhances photosynthesis in pepper plants. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 76(4), pp. 409-416.

Saraswati, R. and Sumarno. (2008). Pemanfaatan mikroba penyubur tanah sebagai komponen teknologi pertanian. Jurnal Iptek Tanaman Pangan, 3(1), pp. 41-58.

Setiawan, E. (2009). Kearifan lokalpola tanam tumpangsari di Jawa Timur. Agrovivor, 2(2), pp. 79-89.

Suherman, C., Soleh, M.A., Nuraini, A., and Annisa, N.F. (2018). Pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman cabai (Capsicum sp.) yang diberi pupuk hayati pada pertanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) TBM 1. Jurnal Kultivasi, 17(2), pp. 648-655.

Sujitno, E. and Dianawati, M. (2015). Harvest production of many new varieties of Capsicum frutescens in dry land on Garut District, West Java. Pros Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia, 1(4), pp. 874-877.

Syafruddin, S. (2017). Growth and yield of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on the growing media of entisol aceh using various endomycorrhizae. Int. J. Agric. Res., 12(1), pp. 36-40.

Widodo, A., Sujalu, A.P., and Syahfari, H. (2016). Pengaruh jarak tanam dan pupuk NPK Phonska terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman jagung manis (Zea mayz saccharata Sturt) varietas sweet boy. Jurnal Agrifor, 15(2), pp. 171-178.

Williams, R.F. (1946). The physiology of plant growth with special reference to the concept of net assimilation rate. Annals of Botany, 10(37), pp. 41-72.

Yanti, Y., Astuti, F.F., Habazar, T., and Nasution, C.R. (2017). Screening of rhizobacteria from rhizosphere of healthy chili to control bacterial wilt disease and to promote growth and yield of chili. Biodiversitas, 18(1), pp. 1-9.

Yanuarti, A.R. and Afsari, M.D. (2016). Profil komoditas barang kebutuhan pokok dan barang penting komoditas cabai. [pdf] Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Perdagangan Dalam Negeri Kementerian Perdagangan. Available at: https://docplayer.info/84988606-Profil-komoditas-barang-kebutuhan-pokok-dan-barang-penting-komoditas-cabai.html [Accessed 19 August 2021].



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ipas.69078

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 878 | views : 575

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.