Pembuatan dan Analisis Karbon Aktif dari Cangkang Buah Karet dengan Proses Kimia dan Fisika

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57479

Lisna Efiyanti(1*), Suci Aprianty Wati(2), Mamay Maslahat(3)

(1) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5 Bogor, Jawa Barat
(2) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan, Jl. Gunung Batu No. 5 Bogor, Jawa Barat
(3) Universitas Nusa Bangsa, Jl Cibadak, Tanah Sareal, Bogor, Jawa Barat
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penggunaan karbon aktif di Indonesia semakin meluas sejalan dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan tehadap karbon aktif tersebut, sehingga perlu terus diupayakan pencarian bahan baku dan metode pembuatan karbon aktif untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif yang berkualitas. Salah satu bahan baku yang dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan karbon aktif adalah cangkang buah karet karena keberadaannya tidak termanfaatkan dengan baik. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pembuatan karbon aktif dari cangkang buah karet masing-masing dengan metode aktivasi steam pada suhu 650°C, aktivasi dengan kalium hidroksida 10% dan aktivasi dengan asam fosfat 10%. Karbon aktif yang terbentuk kemudian dianalisa menggunakan metode SNI 06-3730-1995 dengan parameter kadar air, kadar abu, kadar zat terbang, kadar karbon terikat, daya jerap iod, daya jerap biru metilen dan daya jerap benzena. Gugus fungsi, kristalinitas dan morfologi karbon aktif dianalisa masing-masing menggunakan FTIR, XRD dan SEM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kadar air, kadar abu, kadar zat terbang, kadar karbon terikat, daya jerap iod, daya jerap biru metilen dan daya jerap benzena masing-masing sebesar 1,83-3,74%; 2,86-8,14; 7,36-13,55; 82,8-89,78%; 355,21-569,39 mg/g; 10,34-17,61 mg/g; 8,09-19,26%. Hasil FTIR menunjukkan bahwa gugus fungsi yang terdeteksi pada karbon aktif adalah gugus OH, CH alifatik, CH aromatik, C=O, C-C, C=C dan C-O, sedangkan kristalinitas karbon aktif berkisar antara 11,34-30,78% dengan ukuran pori sebesar 5-9 μm. Karbon aktif dengan aktivator KOH dapat menjerap senyawa iod dan metilen biru lebih baik sedangkan karbon aktif aktivasi steam memiliki daya jerap terbaik pada adsorpsi senyawa benzena.

 

Manufacture and Analysis of Activated Carbon from Rubber Fruit Shell with Chemical and Physical Processing

Abstract

 

The utilization of activated carbon in Indonesia is increased, which is in line with the increase of activated carbon needs, therefore it is necessary to search the raw materials and methods continuously for good quality activated carbon. One of the raw materials that can be used to produce activated carbon is a rubber fruit shell because it is not properly utilized. In this research, activated carbon was made from rubber fruit shells by the steam activation method at a temperature of 650°C, 10% potassium hydroxide, and 10% phosphoric acid activation. The activated carbon was then analyzed using SNI 06-3730-1995 methods with parameters of water content, ash content, volatile matter content, fixed carbon content, iod adsorption, methylene blue adsorption, and benzene adsorption. The functional groups, crystallinity, and morphology of activated carbon also analyzed using FTIR, XRD, and SEM respectively. The results shows that the water content, ash content, volatile matter content, fixed carbon content, iod adsorption, methylene blue adsorption, and benzene adsorption are 1,83-3,74%; 2,86-8,14; 7,36-13,55; 82,8-89,78%; 355,21-569,39 mg/g; 10,34-17,61 mg/g; 8,09-19,26%, respectively. The FTIR results from activated carbon are contain of several functional groups, like OH; CH aliphatic, CH aromatic, C=O; C-C; C=C and C-O, meanwhile the degree of crystallinity from activated carbon formed are ranged 11,34-30,78% with 5-9 μm of pore size. The activated carbon with KOH activator has good adsorption in iod and methylene blue compound meanwhile activated carbon from steam activation can be a good adsorbent on the benzene compound.


Keywords


activated carbon; adsorption; activation; rubber fruit shell

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