Respon Komunitas Burung terhadap Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Panas Bumi (PLTP) Kamojang, Bandung, Jawa Barat

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40145

Diyah Kartikasari(1*), Satyawan Pudyatmoko(2), Novianto Bambang Wawandono(3), Pri Utami(4)

(1) Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Jawa Tengah, Jl. Dr. Suratmo 171, Semarang
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Depok, Sleman 55281
(3) Pusdiklat SDM Kementerian Lingkungan dan Kehutanan Jl. Mayjen Ishak Juarsa, Gunung Batu 141 Bogor
(4) Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No 2, Sleman, 55284
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon komunitas burung terhadap keberadaan Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Panas Bumi Kamojang. Kami membandingkan keanekaragaman dan kekayaan jenis burung pada lokasi yang terdampak (DL) dan tidak terdampak (TL) di Wilayah Kerja Panas Bumi Kamojang, Cagar Alam Kamojang dan Taman Wisata Alam Kamojang di Kabupaten Bandung Provinsi Jawa Barat. Lokasi yang terdampak berada di sekitar sumur produksi atau pembangkit listrik tenaga panas bumi (30 sampel) sedangkan lokasi yang tidak terdampak adalah dengan jarak 3.000 m sampai 9.000 m dari fasilitas tersebut (42 sampel). Pengumpulan data dilakukan selama dua musim; musim kemarau dan penghujan (2015-2016). Kami mengumpulkan data komunitas burung dan data habitat dengan metode point count yang ditempatkan secara sistematis di setiap lokasi. Kami menemukan 124 spesies burung yang terdiri dari 35 famili dan 16 spesies di antaranya adalah burung endemik di Pulau Jawa. Dua puluh tiga spesies dilindungi oleh undang-undang di Indonesia, sembilan spesies termasuk dalam daftar lampiran CITES dan lima spesies masuk dalam Daftar Merah Spesies Terancam IUCN tahun 2017. Terdapat perbedaan respon antara komunitas burung di lokasi terdampak dan tidak terdampak yang ditunjukkan dengan perbedaan rata-rata jumlah spesies, jumlah individu masing-masing spesies, indeks keanekaragaman ShannonWiener. Lokasi tidak terdampak memiliki nilai lebih tinggi pada parameter ini dibanding lokasi yang terkena dampak. Demikian juga, jumlah spesies, jumlah individu vegetasi dan indeks keanekaragaman hayati ShannonWiener pada lokasi TL memiliki nilai rata-rata lebih tinggi daripada lokasi DL. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa meskipun panas bumi dianggap sebagai energi ramah lingkungan namun dalam penggunaannya masih berdampak pada keanekaragaman hayati di sekitarnya terutama untuk jenis burung.

 

Response of Bird Community to Kamojang Geothermal Power Plant, Bandung, West Java

Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the response of bird communities on the presence of geothermal power plant of Kamojang. We compared the bird diversity and richness of affected (DL) and not affected (TL) in Kamojang Geothermal Working Area, Kamojang Nature Reserve and Kamojang Nature Park in Bandung regency of West Java Province. The affected sites were surrounding production wells or geothermal power plants (30 samples) whereas not affected sites were with distance of 3,000 m to 9,000 m from those facilities (42 samples). The data collection was carried out during two seasons; dry and rainy season in (2015-2016). In each site, we collected bird community data and habitat data with the point count method which was placed systematically on each sites. We found 124 birds species belongs to 35 families with 16 endemic species in Java Island. Twenty three species are protected by Indonesian law, with nine species are in the CITES appendix list and five species are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species of 2017. There was a difference of responses between bird communities in the affected and not affected sites which is indicated by differences in the mean number of species, number of individuals in each species, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index. The not affected sites had higher value on these parameters than the affected sites. Similarly, number of species, number of individual vegetation, and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index in TL sites had higher mean values than DL sites. This proves that although geothermal is considered as environmentally friendly energy but in its utilization it still has an impact on the surrounding biodiversity especially for bird species.

Keywords


bird community; geothermal; Kamojang; nature reserve; threatened species

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