A RESEARCH NOTE: THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING METHODS ON THE QUALITY OF EARNINGS

https://doi.org/10.22146/jieb.6625

Suwardjono Suwardjono(1*)

(1) Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Suwardjono (2003) menguji apakah terdapat perbedaan kualitas laba (earnings) antara perusahaan yang menggunakan metoda kos penuh (full cost/FC) dan yang menggunakan metoda upaya sukses (successful efforts/SE). Dengan metoda regresi untuk data kuartal-perusahaan (pooled cross-sectional regression) dan data dari Institutional Brokers Estimate System (IBES), hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaksi pasar terhadap laba (diukur dengan earnings response coefficient/ERC) bagi perusahaan SE secara statistis lebih besar dibanding dengan reaksi pasar bagi perusahaan FC. Temuan ini konsisten dengan temuan dalam penelitian sebelumnya.

Temuan di atas menimbulkan pertanyaan (puzzling) mengingat pasar di bursa saham Amerika dianggap efisien dengan investor canggih sehingga pasar mampu untuk mengenali perubahan laba karena substansi ekonomik atau kosmetik. Penggunaan pooled cross-sectional regression dapat merupakan penyebab hasil yang meragukan tersebut. Catatan riset ini menyelidiki lebih lanjut hasil penelitian ini dengan menguji kembali hipotesis yang diajukan dengan metoda regresi spesifik-perusahaan (firm-specific regression). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merekonsiliasi apakah perbedaan reaksi pasar tersebut memang sudah semestinya atau apakah perbedaan tersebut semata-mata karena metoda pengujian.

Penyelidikan lebih lanjut menunjukkan bahwa dengan regresi spesifik-perusahaan, metoda FC menghasilkan kualitas laba yang paling tidak sama baik dengan, bahkan dalam beberapa hal lebih baik daripada, metoda SE. Hasil ini kontradiksi dengan temuan sebelumnya. Akan tetapi, tes spesifikasi model (Bartlett dan korelasi Pearson) menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan pooled cross-sectional regression menghasilkan estimasi yang melemahkan reaksi pasar terhadap laba perusahaan FC.

 


Keywords


successful efforts, full cost, quality of earnings, earnings response coefficient, cross-sectional regression methodology, firm-specific regression methodology, oil and gas industry

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jieb.6625

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