Bringing Virtual Communities into a Marketing Strategy to Create Purchase Intentions in the Social Media Era

Risca Fitri Ayuni(1*)

(1) Universitas Brawijaya
(*) Corresponding Author


Introduction/main objectives: A virtual community is a new form of social interaction that provides an alternative way for connectivity and creativity. As the most favorite platform, social networking site is one of marketing objectives and strategies for global brands. The purpose of this study is to examine the antecedents (social eWOM, image, and trust) and consequences (purchase intention) of eWOM’s adoption. Background problem: Today, taking part in virtual communities is a must. People with the same interests share their experiences and become trustworthy referees for others. Understanding the effect virtual communities can have will help companies to expand their markets. Novelty: Social eWOM has a great impact, but no prior studies have examined the effect of social eWOM or a virtual community on image, trust, eWOM‘s adoption and purchase intentions, this study would be the first study that provides a comprehensive model using recent issues. Research methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 240 active participants in virtual communities in Indonesia. To collect the data, spreading questionnaire was conducted. SPSS and PLS 3 were used to analyze the data. Findings: The findings proved the relationship among social eWOM, image and trust. It also revealed that eWOM’s adoption affected purchase intentions. Surprisingly, image has no statistically significant effect on eWOM’s adoption. Conclusion: Well-managed social eWOM creates a better image, and increases trust, and eWOM’s adoption leads to an increase in the purchase intention. This study offers managerial insights to manage social eWOM from any virtual communities, to improve their image and trust. Finally, managers should maintain positive reviews, as this will also create an intention to purchase. 


social eWOM, brand image, brand trust, purchase intention

Full Text:



Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity : capitalizing on the value of a brand name. Retrieved from

Aghekyan-Simonian, M., Forsythe, S., Kwon, W. S., & Chattaraman, V. (2012). The role of product brand image and online store image on perceived risks and online purchase intentions for apparel.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In Action Control (pp. 11–39).

Anwar, A., Gulzar, A., Sohail, F. Bin, & Akram, S. N. (2011). Impact Of Brand Image, Trust And Affect On Consumer Brand Extension Attitude: The Mediating Role Of Brand Loyalty. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 1(5), 73–79. Retrieved from

Bai, B., Law, R., & Wen, I. (2008). The impact of website quality on customer satisfaction and purchase intentions: Evidence from Chinese online visitors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 391–402.

Bambauer-Sachse, S., & Mangold, S. (2011). Brand equity dilution through negative online word-of-mouth communication. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18(1), 38–45.

Bang, H.-K., Ellinger, A. E., Hadjimarcou, J., & Traichal, P. A. (2000). Consumer concern, knowledge, belief, and attitude toward renewable energy: An application of the reasoned action theory. Psychology and Marketing, 17(6), 449–468.<449::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-8

Bian, X., & Moutinho, L. (2011). The role of brand image, product involvement, and knowledge in explaining consumer purchase behaviour of counterfeits. European Journal of Marketing, 45(1/2), 191–216.

Chen, C.-H., Nguyen, B., Klaus, P. “Phil,” & Wu, M.-S. (2015). Exploring Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) in The Consumer Purchase Decision-Making Process: The Case of Online Holidays – Evidence from United Kingdom (UK) Consumers. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32(8), 953–970.

Chen, H.-B., Yeh, S.-S., & Huan, T.-C. (2014). Nostalgic emotion, experiential value, brand image, and consumption intentions of customers of nostalgic-themed restaurants. Journal of Business Research, 67(3), 354–360.

Chetna, K. (2017). Social eWOM: does it affect the brand attitude and purchase intention of brands? Management Research Review, 40(3), 310–330.

Cheung, M. Y., Luo, C., Sia, C. L., & Chen, H. (2009). Credibility of Electronic Word-of-Mouth: Informational and Normative Determinants of On-line Consumer Recommendations. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 13(4), 9–38.

Chiang, C.-F., & Jang, S. S. (2007). The Effects of Perceived Price and Brand Image on Value and Purchase Intention: Leisure Travelers’ Attitudes Toward Online Hotel Booking. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 15(3), 49–69.

Chin, W. W., Peterson, R. A., & Brown, S. P. (2008). Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing: Some Practical Reminders. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16(4), 287–298.

Chu, S.-C., & Kim, Y. (2011). Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 47–75.

Clement, J. (2020). Global social networks ranked by number of users 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020, from

Coyle, J. R., & Thorson, E. (2001). The Effects of Progressive Levels of Interactivity and Vividness in Web Marketing Sites. Journal of Advertising, 30(3), 65–77.

Dah-Kwei, L., Chih, W.-H., Yuan, C.-Y., & Lin, C.-Y. (2016). The study of the antecedents of knowledge sharing behavior. Internet Research, 26(4), 845–868.

Daugherty, T., & Hoffman, E. (2014). eWOM and the importance of capturing consumer attention within social media. Journal of Marketing Communications, 20(1–2), 82–102.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319.

Di Virgilio, F., & Antonelli, G. (2018). Consumer Behavior, Trust, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication.

Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers’ Product Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307.

Ellison, N. B., & Boyd, D. M. (2013). Sociality Through Social Network Sites of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice) Sociality Through Social Network Sites.

Erkan, I., & Evans, C. (2016). The influence of eWOM in social media on consumers’ purchase intentions: An extended approach to information adoption. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 47–55.

Evans, D., & Bratton, S. (2010). Social Media Marketing An Hour a Day. Retrieved from

Fan, Y.-W., Miao, Y.-F., Fang, Y.-H., & Lin, R.-Y. (2013). Establishing the Adoption of Electronic Word-of-Mouth through Consumers’ Perceived Credibility. International Business Research, 6(3), 58–65.

Filieri, R., McLeay, F., Tsui, B., & Lin, Z. (2018). Consumer perceptions of information helpfulness and determinants of purchase intention in online consumer reviews of services. Information & Management, 55(8), 956–970.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior : an introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39.

Gefen, D. (2000). E-commerce: the role of familiarity and trust. Omega, 28(6), 725–737.

Graham, J., & Havlena, W. (2007). Finding the “Missing Link”: Advertising’s Impact on Word of Mouth, Web Searches, and Site Visits. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(4), 427–435.

Guo, Y., & Barnes, S. (2011). Purchase behavior in virtual worlds: An empirical investigation in Second Life. Information & Management, 48(7), 303–312.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (second). Retrieved from

Hajli, M. N. (2014). The role of social support on relationship quality and social commerce. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 87, 17–27.

Hausman, A. V., & Siekpe, J. S. (2009). The effect of web interface features on consumer online purchase intentions. Journal of Business Research, 62(1), 5–13.

Hennig-Thurau, T., Gwinner, K. P., Walsh, G., & Gremler, D. D. (2004). Electronic word-of-mouth via consumer-opinion platforms: What motivates consumers to articulate themselves on the Internet? Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(1), 38–52.

Hsu, C.-L., Yu, L.-C., & Chang, K.-C. (2017). Exploring the effects of online customer reviews, regulatory focus, and product type on purchase intention: Perceived justice as a moderator. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 335–346.

Hu, X., Ha, L., Mo, S., & Xu, Y. (2014). Who are fans of Facebook fan pages? An electronic word-of-mouth communication perspective. International Journal of Cyber Society and Education, 7, 125–146.

Huang, L.-S., Chou, Y.-J., & Lan, I.-T. (2007). Effects of Perceived Risk, Message Types, and Reading Motives on the Acceptance and Transmission of Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication. Contemporary Management Research, 3(4).

Huiju, P. (2012). Social network online communities: information sources for apparel shopping. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(6), 400–411.

Hussain, S., Guangju, W., Jafar, R. M. S., Ilyas, Z., Mustafa, G., & Jianzhou, Y. (2018). Consumers’ online information adoption behavior: Motives and antecedents of electronic word of mouth communications. Computers in Human Behavior, 80, 22–32.

Jiménez, F. R., & Mendoza, N. A. (2013). Too Popular to Ignore: The Influence of Online Reviews on Purchase Intentions of Search and Experience Products. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 27(3), 226–235.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. In Source: Journal of Marketing (Vol. 57). Retrieved from

Kim, K. O. (2014). A little bluebird told me : social media conversation effects on business outcomes-evidence from the movie industry (University of Texas). Retrieved from

Kim, T., Kim, W. G., & Kim, H.-B. (2009). The effects of perceived justice on recovery satisfaction, trust, word-of-mouth, and revisit intention in upscale hotels. Tourism Management, 30(1), 51–62.

Kock, N. (2012). WarpPLS 3.0 User Manual. Laredo, Texas: ScriptWarp Systems.

Kotler, Philip; Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing Management. In Essentials of Management for Healthcare Professionals.

Kwok, L., Mao, Z. (Eddie), & Huang, Y.-K. (2017). Consumers’ electronic word-of-mouth behavioral intentions on Facebook: Does message type have an effect? Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(3), 296–307.

Laroche, M., Bergeron, J., & Barbaro‐Forleo, G. (2001). Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(6), 503–520.

Lee, D., Kim, H. S., & Kim, J. K. (2012). The role of self-construal in consumers’ electronic word of mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites: A social cognitive approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 1054–1062.

Lien, C.-H., Wen, M.-J., Huang, L.-C., & Wu, K.-L. (2015a). Online hotel booking: The effects of brand image, price, trust and value on purchase intentions. Asia Pacific Management Review, 20(4), 210–218.

Lien, C.-H., Wen, M.-J., Huang, L.-C., & Wu, K.-L. (2015b). Online hotel booking: The effects of brand image, price, trust and value on purchase intentions. Asia Pacific Management Review, 20(4), 210–218.

Lin, C., Wu, Y.-S., & Chen, J.-C. V. (2013). Electronic Word-Of-Mouth: The Moderating Roles Of Product Involvement And Brand Image. Retrieved from

López, M., & Sicilia, M. (2014). eWOM as Source of Influence: The Impact of Participation in eWOM and Perceived Source Trustworthiness on Decision Making. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 14(2), 86–97.

Miniard, P. W., & Cohen, J. B. (1983). Modeling Personal and Normative Influences on Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 10(2), 169.

Mohammad, R. J. (2012). The effect of electronic word of mouth on brand image and purchase intention. Marketing Intelligence &amp; Planning, 30(4), 460–476.

Nizar Hidayanto, A., Ovirza, M., Anggia, P., Ayuning Budi, N. F., & Phusavat, K. (2017). The Roles of Electronic Word of Mouth and Information Searching in the Promotion of a New E-Commerce Strategy: A Case of Online Group Buying in Indonesia. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 12(3), 69–85.

Pöyry, E., Parvinen, P., & Malmivaara, T. (2013). Can we get from liking to buying? Behavioral differences in hedonic and utilitarian Facebook usage. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 224–235.

Prasetio, A., Hurriyati, R., Sari, P. K., & Sary, F. P. (2017). Social Capital and Electronic Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) Effect Toward Online Purchase Intention. Advanced Science Letters, 23(11), 10822–10825.

Rahim, R. A., Sulaiman, Z., Chin, T. A., Baharun, R., & Muharam, F. M. (2016). Measuring Electronic Word of Mouth Review Adoption on Green Purchase Intention Using Source Credibility Theory. Advanced Science Letters, 22(12), 4283–4287.

Rui, H., Liu, Y., & Whinston, A. (2013). Whose and what chatter matters? The effect of tweets on movie sales. Decision Support Systems, 55(4), 863–870.

Ryu, K., Han, H., & Kim, T.-H. (2008). The relationships among overall quick-casual restaurant image, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 459–469.

Saad, S., Shah, H., Aziz, J., Raza Jaffari, A., Waris, S., Ejaz, W., … Sherazi, S. K. (2012). The Impact of Brands on Consumer Purchase Intentions. Asian Journal of Business Management, 4(2), 105–110. Retrieved from

Sahabi, Y. A. (2018). Influence of e-WOM engagement on consumer purchase intention in social commerce. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(4), 493–504.

Sandes, F. S., & Urdan, A. T. (2013). Electronic Word-of-Mouth Impacts on Consumer Behavior: Exploratory and Experimental Studies. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(3), 181–197.

See-To, E. W. K., & Ho, K. K. W. (2014). Value co-creation and purchase intention in social network sites: The role of electronic Word-of-Mouth and trust – A theoretical analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 182–189.

Semuel, H., & Chandra, S. S. (2014). The Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation Effects towards Price Fairness, Trust and Purchase Intention at Oriflame Cosmetics Product in Surabaya. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 155, 42–47.

Sen, S., & Lerman, D. (2007). Why are you telling me this? An examination into negative consumer reviews on the Web. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(4), 76–94.

Shin, Y. H., Moon, H., Jung, S. E., & Severt, K. (2017). The effect of environmental values and attitudes on consumer willingness to pay more for organic menus: A value-attitude-behavior approach. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 33, 113–121.

Shukla, A., & Sharma, S. K. (2018). Evaluating Consumers’ Adoption of Mobile Technology for Grocery Shopping: An Application of Technology Acceptance Model. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 22(2), 185–198.

Sparks, B. A., & Browning, V. (2011). The impact of online reviews on hotel booking intentions and perception of trust. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1310–1323.

Torlak, O., Yalin Ozkara, B., Ali Tiltay, M., Cengiz, H., & Fatih Dulger, M. (2014). The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Brand Image and Purchase Intention: An Application Concerning Cell Phone Brands for Youth Consumers in Turkey. Retrieved from

Wang, S., Cunningham, N. R., & Eastin, M. S. (2015). The Impact of eWOM Message Characteristics on the Perceived Effectiveness of Online Consumer Reviews. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 15(2), 151–159.

Wang, X., & Yang, Z. (2010). The Effect of Brand Credibility on Consumers’ Brand Purchase Intention in Emerging Economies: The Moderating Role of Brand Awareness and Brand Image. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(3), 177–188.

Wei, S., Ang, T., & Jancenelle, V. E. (2018). Willingness to pay more for green products: The interplay of consumer characteristics and customer participation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 45, 230–238.

Wu, J.-J., Chen, Y.-H., & Chung, Y.-S. (2010). Trust factors influencing virtual community members: A study of transaction communities. Journal of Business Research, 63(9–10), 1025–1032.

Wu, J. H.-C., Lin, Y.-C., & Hsu, F.-S. (2011). An empirical analysis of synthesizing the effects of service quality, perceived value, corporate image and customer satisfaction on behavioral intentions in the transport industry: a case of Taiwan high-speed rail. In Innovative Marketing (Vol. 7). Retrieved from

Yaniv, G. (2018). Consumer engagement with eWOM on social media: the role of social capital. Online Information Review, 42(4), 482–505.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2–22.

Zhu, D. H., Chang, Y. P., & Luo, J. J. (2016). Understanding the influence of C2C communication on purchase decision in online communities from a perspective of information adoption model. Telematics and Informatics, 33(1), 8–16.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4934 | views : 4404


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business


Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism


Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement
Author Fees


Author Pack
Submission Form & Manuscript Template



Reviewer Guidelines
Reviewer Acknowledgement



General Search
Author index
Title index



The Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business (print ISSN 2085-8272; online ISSN 2338-5847) is published by the Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 
 Visitor Statistics