Blue-Collar Workers Entrepreneurial Intentions and The Extended Theory of Reasoned Action: Incorporating SEM and Person-Item Map Analysis

Hermansyah Andi Wibowo(1*), Nurul Indarti(2)

(1) Universitas Serang Raya
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Introduction/Main Objectives: Blue-collar workers face major threats related to the development and application of Industry 4.0. Unfortunately, research on how they deal with this situation is scarce in the behavioral science literature. In this study, we attempt to fill this gap by emphasizing a methodological aspect of combining structural equation modeling (SEM) and person-item map analysis to the extended model of the theory of reasoned action. Novelty and Methods: We offer the notion of combining SEM and Rasch model analysis to explain the extended of theory of reasoned action. The respondents were blue-collar workers from Indonesia who have not yet started a business. Finding/Results: In line with our goal of applying intersubjective certification to the extended theory of reasoned action (TRA) model in the context of blue-collar workers, our results suggest that religiosity affects entrepreneurial intentions, both directly and indirectly, through attitude. The subjective norms have also been shown to influence the intention of blue-collar workers to become entrepreneurs. The extended TRA model has been proven empirically to have good predictive power, with a total effect of 83%. Conclusion: Regarding the sample issue, the person-item map is excellent for explaining our SEM-based findings. The idea of combining the Rasch model property, which is a persons-items map, requires more empirical support to promote its ability to illuminate SEM-based research explanations.


blue-collar workers, nascent entrepreneurs, the theory of reasonedaction, religiosity, person-item maps.

Full Text:




Ahrold, T. K., Farmer, M., Trapnell, P. D., & Meston, C. M. (2011). The Relationship Among Sexual Attitudes, Sexual Fantasy, and Religiosity. Journal of Sexual Behavior, 40(3), 619–630.

Ajzen, I. (2010). Constructing a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Biofeed­back and Selfregulation, 17, 1–7. Retrieved from

Ajzen, I. (2012). Martin Fishbein’s Legacy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 640(1), 11–27.

Al-Bukhari No. 590. (n.d.). Sahih Bukhari, Chapter: Loans, Payment of Loans, Freezing of Property and Bankruptcy. Retrieved from

Al Jahwari, D. S. (2015). An Integrative Model of Muslim Students’ Religiosity and Travelling Behavior to Gaming Destinations (University of South Carolina). Retrieved from

Alam, Syed. S., Janor, H., Zanariah, W., C. A. C., & Ahsan, M. N. (2012). Is Religiosity an Impportant Foctor in Influencing the ntention to Undertake Islamic Home Financing in Klang Valley?? World Applied Science Journal, 19(7), 1030–1041.

Alam, Syed Shah, Janor, H., Aniza, C., & Wel, C. (2012). Is Religiosity an Important Factor in Influencing the Intention to Undertake Islamic Home Financing in Klang Valley ? World Applied Science Journal, 19(7), 1030–1041.

Aleassa, H., Pearson, J. M., & McClurg, S. (2011). Investigating Software Piracy in Jordan: An Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(4), 663–676.

Azwar, S. (2013). Sikap Manusia Teori dan Pengukurannya (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Barkan, S. E. (2014). Gender and Abortion Attitudes: Religiosity as a Suppressor Variable. Public Opinion Quarterly, 78(4), 940–950.

Bektaş, F. (2011). Entrepreneurial Intentions of Turkish University Students. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 4(8), 167–181.

Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch Model Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences. In Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Ed.), Climate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Bogoviz, A. V., Osipov, V. S., Chistyakova, M. K., & Borisov, M. Y. (2019). Comparative Analysis of Formation of Industry 4.0 in Developed and Developing Countries. In E. G. Popkova, Y. V. Ragulina, & A. V. Bogoviz (Eds.), Industrial Revolution of the 21st Century, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control 169, (pp. 155–164).

El-Menouar, Y. (2014). The Five Dimensions of Muslim Religiosity. Results of an Empirical Study. Method, Data, Analyses, 8(1), 53–78.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and Changing Behavior.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975a). Attitude formation. In Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior, An Introduction to Theory and Research (pp. 216–287).

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975b). Attitude Theory. In Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior, An Introduction to Theory and Research (pp. 21–52).

Grande, T. (2015). Identifying Multivariate Outliers with Mahalanobis Distance in SPSS. Retrieved from website:

Gullatte, M. (2006). The Influence of Spirituality and Religiosity on Breast Cancer Screening Delay in African American Women: Application of Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB). ABNF Journal, 17(2), 89.

Hair Jr., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. In Pearson new international edition (7th ed.). Retrieved from

Holdcroft, B. (2006). What is Religiosity ? Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice, 10(1), 89–103.

Hunt, S. D. (1991). Modern Marketing Theory: Critical Issues In The Philosophy Of Marketing Science (T. E. Shaffer, Ed.). Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co.

Johnson, B. R., Jang, S. J., Larson, D. B., & DE LI, S. (2001). Does Adolescent Religious Commitment Matter? A Reexamination of the Effects of Religiosity on Delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(1), 22–44.

Khalek, A. A., & Ismail, S. H. S. (2015). Why Are We Eating Halal – Using the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Halal Food Consumption among Generation Y in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(7), 608–612.

Lada, S., Harvey Tanakinjal, G., & Amin, H. (2009). Predicting intention to choose halal products using theory of reasoned action. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 2(1), 66–76.

Mahudin, N. D. M., Noor, N. M., Dzulkifli, M. A., & Janon, S. N. (2016). Religiosity among Muslims : A Scale Development and Validation Study. Makara Hubs-Asia, 20(2), 109–120.

McKenzie, D. (2012). Relationship between Religiosity, Violent Behavior and Gang Activity among Economically Disadvan­taged Adolescents (University of Alabama). Retrieved from

Nawawi No. 2. (n.d.). An-Nawawi’s 40 hadith _ the forty hadith. Retrieved from

Pozdnyakova, U. A., Golikov, V. V., Peters, I. A., & Morozova, I. A. (2019). Genesis of the Revolutionary Transition to Industry 4.0 in the 21st Century and Overview of Previous Industrial Revolutions. In E. G. Popkova, Y. V. Ragulina, & A. V. Bogoviz (Eds.), Industrial Revolution ofthe 21st Century, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control 169, (pp. 11–19).

Salzberger, T., & Koller, M. (2013). Towards a new paradigm of measurement in marketing. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1307–1317.

Schouten, C. M. D. D., & Graafland, J. (2014). Religiosity , CSR Attitudes , and CSR Behavior : An Empirical Study of Executives’ Religiosity and CSR. Journal of Business Ethics, 123, 437–459.

Shakona, M. Y. (2013). The Influence of Religiosity on the Intention of United States Muslim Tourists to Choose a Shariah Compliant Hotel (Graduate School of Clemson University). Retrieved from

Slater, W. E., Hall, T. W., & Edwards, K. J. (2001). Measuring religion and spirituality: where we are and where are we going? Journal of Psychology and Theology, 29(1), 4–21.

Souiden, N., & Rani, M. (2015). Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward Islamic banks: the influence of religiosity. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33(2), 143–161.

Sukhodolov, Y. A. (2019). The Notion, Essence, and Peculiarities of Industry 4.0 as a Sphere of Industry. In E. G. Popkova, Y. V. Ragulina, & A. V. Bogoviz (Eds.), Industrial Revolution ofthe 21st Century, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control 169, (pp. 3–10).

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2014). Aplikasi Model Rasch untuk Penelitian Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial (2nd ed.; B. Trim, Ed.). Retrieved from

Sumintono, B., & Widhiarso, W. (2016). Aplikasi Model Rasch untuk Penelitian Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial (edisi revisi). In Aplikasi Model Rasch untuk Penelitian Ilmu-Ilmu Sosia.

Wibowo, H. A. (2017). The Effects of Indonesia Female Religiosity on Hijab - Wearing Behavior: An Extended of Theory of Reasoned Action. International Review of Management and Business Research, 6(3), 1040–1050.

Wibowo, H. A., & Masitoh, M. R. (2018). Measuring religiosity and its effects on attitude and intention to wear a hijab: Revalidating the scale. In Badri Munir Sukoco, Rahmat Heru Setianto, Nidya Ayu Arina, Ade Gafar Abdullah, & R. H. Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto (Eds.), Increasing Management Relevance and Competi­tiveness (1st ed., p. 538).

Wijanto, S. H. (2008). Structural Equation Modeling dengan LISREL 8.8 Konsep & Tutorial (1st ed.). Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu

Yoon, C. (2011). Theory of Planned Behavior and Ethics Theory in Digital Piracy: An Integrated Model. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(3), 405–417.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3264 | views : 2294


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business


Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism


Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement
Author Fees


Author Pack
Submission Form & Manuscript Template



Reviewer Guidelines
Reviewer Acknowledgement



General Search
Author index
Title index



The Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business (print ISSN 2085-8272; online ISSN 2338-5847) is published by the Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 
 Visitor Statistics