FROM DUTCH MERCANTILISM TO LIBERALISM: INDONESIAN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE



Tri Widodo(1*)

(1) Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Paper ini membahas sejarah ekonomi Indonesia yang dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa periode yaitu pre-kolonialisasi, intrusi Eropa, pendudukan Jepang dan masa kemerdekaan. Negara Eropa yang paling mewarnai sejarah Indonesia adalah Belanda. Paper ini menganalisis evolusi pendekatan ekonomi dan politis yang dilakukan Belanda pada masa kolonialisasi di Indonesia kaitannya dengan sejarah pemikiran ekonomi di Belanda. Paper ini memiliki beberapa kesimpulan. Pertama, hubungan internasional Indonesia telah dilakukan jauh sebelum intrusi Eropa yang ditandai dengan perdagangan internasional. Kerajaan-kerajaan Hindu, Budha dan Islam memainkan peranan penting dalam perdagangan internasional pada masa sebelum intrusi Eropa. Kedua, era intrusi Eropa khususnya Belanda dan masa kemerdekaan mewarnai sejarah perekonomian Indonesia. Perspektif sejarah menunjukkan fakta bahwa terdapat hubungan kuat antara politik dan kinerja perekonomian Indonesia. Hal tersebut ditunjukkan oleh pertumbuhan GDP, volume perdagangan, harga ekspor dan pengeluaran pemerintah pada masa sistem Tanam Paksa, Liberal, Politik Etis, Orde Lama dan Orde Baru. Ketiga, terdapat hubungan erat antara perkembangan sejarah pemikiran ekonomi di Belanda dan kebijakan-kebijakan masa kolonialisasi. Dalam kasus Indonesia, hal tersebut direfleksikan dengan pembentukan Dutch East India Company- Vereenigde Oost-Indische Companie, VOC- oleh Belanda (Indices Company oleh British Mercantilism), Sistem Tanam Paksa, Politik Etis dan Liberal. Keempat dari perpektif sejarah ekonomi, Indonesia beberapa kali kehilangan kesempatan (missed opportunity) untuk memiliki kinerja ekonomi yang baik dikarenakan kondisi institusi dan politik.

Keywords


Colonialism, Dutch Mercantilism, Cultivation System, Missed Opportunity

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References

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